GCSE (9-1) Geography OCR B: Urban Futures (incomplete)

  • Created by: Anjola03
  • Created on: 03-06-19 16:27

Urbanisation growth rates

  • Urbanisation - growth in the proportion of a country’s population living in urban areas

  • More than 50% of the world’s population live in urban areas

  • In ACs…

    • Urbanisation happened earlier e.g. industrial revolution, so most of the population already live in urban areas

    • Slow urbanisation growth rates

    • Lots of counter-urbanisation due to better quality of life and good transport and communication networks

  • In LIDCs & EDCs…

    • high/fast urbanisation growth rates

    • Varies in EDCs

    • Fastest rates in LIDCs

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World cities

  • World city - a city of global importance due to its political, financial and cultural importance

    • E.g. London, New York, Shanghai, Paris

    • Characteristics include:

      • Centre for innovation for business

      • Centre for media and communications

      • Integrating into the global economy

      • Financial services

      • Cultural opportunities

    • In the 1950s, there were only 2 (Tokyo and New York), but now they have increased and most are located in Advanced countries (ACs) with some in Emerging Developing Countries, EDCs, (e.g. Dubai, Moscow and Rio de Janeiro)
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  • Megacity - an urban area with a population of more than 10 million

    • Single city or conurbation

    • Conurbation - merging of several neighbouring towns or cities

      • e.g. Greater London is a conurbation
    • Megacities were located in Advanced Countries in the 1950s but they have currently increased globally and over two-thirds are located in EDCs and Low Income Devloping Countries (LIDCs)
    • often capital cities
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Causes of rapid urbanisation in LIDCs

  • Rural-urban migration - movement of people from the countryside to cities
    • affected by push and pull factors
  • Rapid urbanisation caused by combination of push (encourage to leave area) and pull factors (encourage to move to area)
    • push factors: natural disasters which people cannot afford to repair, mechanisation of agricultual equipment (less jobs), drought, fleeing home due to conflict/war
    • pull factors: more jobs in urban areas with better pay, access to better health care and education, join family who have already moved, perception of a better quality of life
  • Urbanisation also caused by Internal growth
  • Internal growth - growth in population without immigration
    • e.g. natural increase - birth rate higher than death rate
    • birth rate higher in cities because there is a larger proportion of younger fertile people (due to better job opportunities in the city) who have children and increase urban population
    • in LIDCs, cities have better healthcare which decreases death rate in comparison to rural areas and it increases proportion of people in urban areas
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Consequences of rapid urbanisation in LIDCs

  • Social consequences
    • not enough housing to support increase in population
    • people end up in squatter settlements that are badly built and overcrowded, causing health and other social issues
      • squatter settlements (aka shanty towns) - areas of self-built housing usually with poor access to safe running water and lack of sanitation, found on edge of cities on undesireable land, mostly illegal so no insentive to improve housing (could be kicked out at any point)
    • poor health due to lack of basic services
    • high crime levels
  • Economic consequences
    • not enough jobs leads to unemployment
    • informal jobs often have long hours in dangerous conditions for little pay
    • less access to education, lack of skills for jobs
  • Environmental consequences
    • sewage and toxic chemicals can get into rivers, harming wildlife
    • congestion causes emission of greenhouse gases and air pollution
    • rubbish not collected on time, damaging to environment especially when toxic
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Causes and consequences of suburbanisation

  • Suburbanisation - spread of cities into suburbs (outskirts)
  • Causes:
    • push factors: overcrowding, pollution, high crime rates, little natural spaces, slum clearances (clear low quality city housing and build new housing on ouskirts), deindustralisation in city centres leads to unemployment, increase in unemployment may lead to closure of local services due to lack of money to spend
    • pull factors: lower population density, more 'family-friendly', more open spaces, more relaxed planning laws so easier to build new houses, improved transport links and car ownership which allows commuting, cheaper rent 
  • Consequences:
    • social: city may become run down as people and businesses move to the surburbs and city centre buildings are abandoned and become derelict, economic and ethnic segregation due to wealthier middle-class people moving out and poorer people remaining in city centres
    • economic: fewer services, fewere people, deserted areas after work hours, unemployment, lower living standards and poverty due to relocation of businesses
    • environmental: affects wildlife habitats in countryside, more concrete ground leads to more surface-run off less transpiration and greater risk of flooding, air pollution and greenhouse gas emission due to commuting
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Causes and consequences of counter-urbanisation

  • counter-urbanisation - movement of people from urban areas to rural areas
  • causes
    • push factors: suburbs and city centre have traffic and parking issues, housing i urban areas are more expensive with no value for money
    • pull factors: housing in rural areas are bigger with more outside space, improved communication services allows work from home also means no need for companies to be in city centres which means more jobs in rural areas, improved transport and car ownership allows commuting
  • consequences
    • social: creates commuter settlements so local business may have to close due to reduced demand (people mostly at work), more demand or houses so housing prices increase (younger people cannot afford this , so population dominated by older people), struggle with additional traffic, schools close because the population is older
    • economic: services see increase in business because new residents usually have dispensable income (professionals or retired), but they may also close because wealthier residents will use services in urban areas instead of locally, farmers make money by selling unwanted land/housing
    • environmental: air pollution and congestion from cars, new housing affects wildlife habitats
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Causes and consequences of re-urbanisation

  • re-urbanistaion - regeneration of urban areas
  • causes
    • push factors: lack of jobs in rural or suburban areas, rural areas have fewer leisure or entertainment facilities, counter-urbanisation may coause high housing prices
    • pull factors: 
  • consequences
  • social:
  • economic:
  • environmental:
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