Bowles and Ginitis
Bowles and Ginitis are Marxists who argue that the education system socialises children into a capitalist ideology in the following ways:
1. Acceptance of Heirarchy
2. Creation of subservant workers
3. External rewards
4. Fragmentation to prevent unity
Hakim is a post- feminist who arguest that women now have the choice of three identities: work, family and adaptive. Nevertheless, she has been criticised for catogrising women whilst arguing that there is equal freedom for them.
Goldthorpe and Lockwood-The Affluent Worker
An economic boom in the 1950s meant that many manual workers recieved an increase in pay. Nevertheless, Goldthorpe and Lockwood found that attitudes had not really changed, and that norms and values were more working class than middle class still. This couls be seen in their political capital (nearly all voted Labour), attitudes towards unions and politics, and leisure time. Only two of the eighty people sampled were considered middle class by Goldthorpe and Lockwood. They therefore concluded that emboureoisement was not occuring in Britain.
Goldthorpe and Lockwood (Weberian)-The Oxford Mobi
10,000 men were catogorised into three social class groups: service, intermediate and working classes. They concluded three main statements:
1. The Closure Thesis (AKA the Elite Thesis)
The service class is mainly self-recruting and did not allow much upward mobility from lower classes.
2. The Buffer Zone Thesis
Limited mobility between manual and non manual jobs available. Goldthorpe doubted the validity of this as 28.5% of those currently in class 1 had been born into classes 6 or 7.
3. The Counterbalancing Thesis
This is the theory that in the post war period the chances of intergenerational mobility have decreased, but the chances of intragenerational mobilty have increased. Goldthorpe found little support for this.