Moscovici and Consistency:
If a minority is consistent and persistent in their viewpoints then others are more inclined to conform. If one person changes their mind from maj to min then it seems easier for other people to do the same.
Clark said that a persuasive argument allows a minority to affect a majority more, and so does a consistent argument too.
Defectors: when people see others changing their view to the minority, they're more likely to follow suit.
Social Impact Theory,
Latane and Wolf, 1981
Premise: both minority and majority influence involve sources, people who provide the influence and tragets, people who may be influenced.
The amount of influence depends on three factors that interact,
1. Quantity: number of people gathering influence and as numbger incereases so too does influence, for example, women's rights
2. immediacy- ON THREE LEVELS: Say I was of the minimum viewpoint- a person exerting an influence exerts most influence on nearest people. This is the physical distance. The psychological immediacy too can do this, e.g. your mum tries to make you conform rather than a stranger.
Hart, Stasson and Karau, 1999
1999 measured the impact of strength and immediacy on social influence.
Placed participants in groups of three, consisting of two naive participants and one confederate who argued for a minority position.
Their task was to rate fourty university applicants for places. Immediacy was amnipulated by having the confrederate four feet away, a high immediacy, or ten feet away, a low imediacy, and strength was manipulated by having the confederate acting as a student, low strengths or as an expert- high strength.
They found the expert confederate had more impact than the student, but only in the low impact setting when they were farther away. There was no difference in the importance of strength in the high impact setting when the confed was close by, implying that immediacy may be the ost important factor in the minority influence.
low strength got less power at low immediacy
high strengh got more power at low immediacy.
Milgram and factors affecting obedience:
Setting: Moved to downtown office block, original study done at Yale uni. Obedience to fourhundredandfifty volts dropped to fourty eight percent.
Proximity: Teacher and learner in the same room.Obedience to shock four hundred and fifty volts dropped to fourty per cent.
Touch Proximity: Teacher has to force learner's hand onto the shock plate- obedience dropped to thirty per cent
Peer administers shock: Obedience considerably higher, absoved of personal responsibility, when a peer administers the shocks and the teacher only has to read out the questions.
Two peers rebel: Or another 'teacher' refuses to shock obedience levels to four hundred and fifty volts and the obedience dropped to 10 per cent.
Remote authority: If the experimenter gives instructions to continue shocking over the phone, obedience to four hundred and fifty volts drops to twenty one per cent.