- Created by: CarlaBooth
- Created on: 12-09-19 10:37
Functional prerequisites: Basic needs of society.
Functional alternatives/equivalents: When two different institutuions perform the same function.
Determinism: The idea that humans have no free will, their thoughts are caused by factors outside of themsleves.
Socialisation: The process through wich culture is internalised.
Value consensus: society sharing the same set of values.
Social order: The way institutions in society are organised and work together to maintain status quo.
Meritocracy: Everyone having an equal opportunity to succed, rewards and status are achieved not ascribed.
Organic analogy: The institustions of society are interpendent.
- Society maintains order through shared values
- Share values= the collective conscience
- Sociology should be a study of social facts and can and shouold be studied objectively
- Studied suicide- was interested in how society can externally constrain ('social integration' and 'social regulation')- shapes our behaviour
- Adopted a positivist approach using official statistics to conduct multivariate analysis
- Needs are met by 4 major sub systems- broken into Instrumental needs and Expressive needs
- Instumantal (material) = Economic and Political subsystems
- Expressive (emotional) = Kinship and Cultural subsytems
- Value consensus is maintained through socialisation and socila control agencies
- Scoiety is made up of linked elements that meet functional prerequisites
- Made up of three interliniking systems- Personality, Social, Cultural.
- Personality: A persons beliefs, goals and internalized values
- Social (central system for parsons): Institutionaolised expectations expressed in roles such as teacher/student in education
- Cultural: Core values and shared history that make a society distinct
- Must meet four funtional prerequisites- Adaptation, Goal attainment, Integration, Latency
- Adaptation: Economic production to ensure physicla needs are met. each society must provide adequate standard of life
- Goal attaintment: Societies must develop ways of making decisions for the masses
- Integration: The need to control conflict through socila control agencies
- Latency: Maintenance of value consensus/ role alloctaionso people are motivated to belong to society
- Challenged som functional assumptions
- Argued that Organic Analogy is less likely in a complex and highly differentiated society
- Functional unity should be investigated and shouldn't be assumed to automatically exist
- Argues that not all parts of society have positive functions but that some parts of society may be dysfunctional or non-functional
- Argues taht Parsons and Durkheim ignore possibility of distinguishing between positive function (Manifest functions, Latent Functions)
- Manifest functions: The deliberate and intended function
- Latent Function: The unintende function that may still have a positive effect
- Argues that it is wrong to assume society could not function without some institutions as institutions can have Functional alternatives/equivelants