What are fundamentalist groups?
Fundamentalist groups are those who think thattheir religion is the literal truth. some fundamentalist groups use violence to show their devotion
What did GIDDENS say?
giddens says there is a growth in fundamentalism because of globalisation.
he says it may seem contradictory that fundamentalism is growing alongside the rational modernising world.
They are reacting to the globalised direction the world is taking.
What is a cosmopolitain society?
A cosmopolitatin society is one which embraces modernisation and is tolerant of other views and embraces diversity and freedom
what does BAUMAN say?
fundamentalism is a response to post modernity
diversity and freedom are positive factors but hieghten uncertainty and risks.
fundamentalism restores uncertainty about the world and eliminates risks.
what does CASTELLS say?
that there are two responses to postmodernisn.
PROJECT IDENTITY- embracing change.
RESISTANT IDENTITIES- defensive reaction to change and turns to fundamentalism
what does BRUCE say
says religion tends to be found in monotheistic religions as there is always one over-riding truth, where as polytheistic religions are more open to change and other options as they have multiple gods.
He also talks about:
WESTERN FUNDAMENTALISM- develops as the change is happening within their own communities and societies.
THIRD WORLD FUNDAMENTALISM- develops as a response to outside cultures forcing change onto thirdworld countries (i9slamic revalution in iran, they feel westernisation is opposing them)
ignore communities whore cosmopolitatin and fundamentalist groups arent the polar opposite
extreamism isnt just a reaction to globalisation but also to more localised problems.
what are individual national identities being repl
COLLECTIVE INTERNATIONAL IDENTITIES. -
national identities mean less and less politicians talk about eurpoean communities or asia rather than indentifying individual countires. societies are having a crisis of identity, whereby cultures and traditions are becoming less significant.
what is a cultural defence
a cultural defence is a way of holding on to a national heritage, tradition or culture (a way of re-individualising yourself).
poland are greatly intwined with catholicism and this has helped them stay true to who they are as a nation
what is western fundamentalism?
this usually develops as a result of damages occuring within their own society (western baptist church)
What is third world fundamentalism?
this tends to devlop as a response to outsider cultures forcing change onto these third world societies (westernisation is beng opposed on them)
what do liberal influences indclude?
accpetance of sex befroe marriage, homosexuality, divorce reform, aborton