Functions of Organelles

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  • Created by: tiacoles
  • Created on: 18-01-16 17:42

Plasma Membrane

Description

Made mainly of lipids and proteins.

Function

Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. 

It also has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.

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Cell Wall

Description

Made of the carbohydrate cellulose.

Function

Supports plant cells.

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Nucleus

Description

Surrounded by a nuclear envelope which contains many pores. 

Contains chromatin and nucleolus.

Function

Chromatin is made from proteins and DNA.

The pores allow substances e.g. RNA to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

The nucleolus makes ribosomes.

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Lysosome

Description

Surrounded by membrane with no clear internal structure.

Function

Contains digestive enzymes.

Kept seperate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane and can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components.

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Ribosome

Description

Very small, floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the RER.

Function

Site where proteins are made.

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

Description

A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. 

Surface covered in ribosomes.

Function

Folds and processes proteins made from the ribosomes.

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

Description

Similar to RER but with no ribosomes.

Function

Synthesises and processes lipids.

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Vesicle

Description

Small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane.

Function

Transports substances in and out of cell aswell as between organelles. 

Some are formed by the Golgi Apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum, while others are fromed at the cell surface.

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Golgi Apparatus

Description

Fluid-filled flattened sacs. 

Function

Processes and packages new lipids and proteins. Also makes lysosomes.

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Mitochondrion

Description

Has a double membrane.

Inner one is folded to form cristae.

The matrix contains enzymes for respiration

Function

Site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced. 

Found in large numbers in active cells which require a lot of energy.

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Chloroplast

Description

A small, flattened structure found in plant cells. 

Double membrane, has membranes inside called thylakoid membranes.

These are stacked up to form grana.

Grana are linked by lamellae.

Function

Site where photosynthesis takes place. 

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Centriole

Description

Small, hollow cylinders, containing a ring of microtubules (tiny protein cylinders)

Functions

Involved with seperation of chromosomes during cell division

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Cilia

Description

Small, hair-like structures found on surface membrane of some animal cells.

In a cross-section they have an outer membrane and a ring of nine pairs of protein microtubules inside, with a single pair in the middle

Function

The microtubules allow cilia to move. 

This moves substances along the cell surface.

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Flagellum

Description

On eukaryotic cells they are like cilia but longer.

They stick out from the cell surface and are surrounded by plasma membrane. 

Function

Microtubules contract to make flagellum move.

Used to propel cells forward e.g. sperm.

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