Functionalist Crime Studies and Evaluation

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  • Created by: Anya
  • Created on: 14-01-14 17:35

Merton

Strain theory- access to the means creates conformity, innovators, retreatists, rebellions or ritualists. 
Evaluation
Bougouis- 'el barrio'- drug dealers have the same values but not the same means (innovators)
Nightingale- black youths in Philadephia stole goods to fit in to mainstream society (innovators)
BUT
Taylor, Walton and Young- ignors crimes of the powerful
Vallier- no common goals to aim for

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Cloward and Ohlin

Illegitimate opportunity structure:
-Criminal
-Conflict
-Retreat
Evaulation 
Marxists- subcultures are a part of resistance against the hegemonic masculinity
BUT
Hobb's work shows there is an illegitimate opportunity structure  

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Cohen

Status frustration- working class boys mock middle class culture because of feelings of inadequecy 
Evaluation
Female deviance?
 

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Miller

Focal concerns- working class boys have a series of focal concerns which encourage deliquency. These include:
-Smartness
-Trouble
-Excitement
-Toughness
-Autonomy
-Fate
Evaluation
Mazta- subterranean values. Neutralisation of crimes -everybody follows these focal concerns

Box- applied across class spectrum
Downes- no distinctive values in working class male subcultures
BUT
Parker found focal concerns with 'lads' in
Liverpool 

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