- thickens a liquid by forming a suspension such as a sauce
- forms a gel when the suspension is heated, like adding cornflour to a custard powder and milk mix
- flavours by sweetening
- colours by caramelising when heated
- aerates when beaten with a fat such as in a cake mix
- can coagulate which is when a liquid becomes firmer, for example when an egg is heated
- can aerate a mixture, like whisking egg whites in a meringue mix
Keywords to understand
Gelatinisation- Gelatinization is the process whereby the starch particles absorb moisture, expand and become firm. This process starts at 140 degrees and is complete when the sauce becomes bubbly.
Elasticity- Elasticity is its ability to go back to its original shape, the gluten, which forms when the flour interacts with water, is what lends the dough the elasticity.
Shortening- The effect of adding fat to a floury mixture- giving a product a crumbly texture, when fat coats flour particles and stops gluten (particals) chains breaking up and creating a crumbly texture, with little elasticity.
Aeration-There are 5 ways in which Aeration can be achieved in cake making-
- Biological (panary, yeast ).
- Chemical (baking powder).
- Mechanical ( whisking and beating)
- Physical ( lamination, steam )
- Combinations of the above.
Emulsification- A mixture of two or more unblendable mixtures.
keywords to understand 2
Flavouring- Sweetening agent- A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are called artificial sweeteners
Colouring- Margarine and buuter gives good coloure while lard lacks in colour.
Setting- Gelatine is a colourless and ouderless setting agent made from boiled bones skins and tendons of animals.
Fermentation- uses yeast to convert carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon dioxide. In bread making, yeast is added to flour and water causing the dough to rise.
understanding the functional properties of foods
- shortens pastry (makes it more crumbly) by making it less stretchy
- can act as an emulsifying agent to stop two liquids from separating
- moistens a baked mixture such as a cake
Suspension- A mixture of two ingredients, one of which is finely diveded throughout the other.
Caramelising- Turn to caramel- A brown mixture which sugar turns to when heated to the point where all the water has been driven off and the sugar begins to burn. Aerates- Aerating mixes air into a material.
Coagulate- When somthing thickens from a liquid to a solid. eg raw eggs are clear and runny but turn white and stiff when heated.
Emulsifying agent- A substance which helps two liquids stay mixed together. eg. oil and water.