Full Revision Notes For GCSE OCR Citizenship

  • Created by: u_william
  • Created on: 07-05-17 15:53


40 Revision Cards 


Citizenship Full Course 

By William U 

(A* - U EXAMS)

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Human Rights - Where Do They Come From ?

1. Magna Carta - First established human rights in 1215 - Democracy.

2. Declaration Of Independence (America) 1776 - Everyone is created equal. 

3. United Nations Declaration 1948.

Examples Of Human Rights :

Right To Equality, Right To Freedom From Discrimination and Right To Life, 

Human Rights Are Taken Away For :

Committing Murder - Taking away the right to life.

Shouting Fire In A Cinema - Taking away the right to freedom of speech.

Expressing Your Religion (Pakistan) - Taking away the right to freedom of religion.

4. European Convention.

5. Human Rights Act 1998 - (This Is British Law).

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Human Rights - When Are They Ignored ?

Human Rights Are Ignored When:

- In Prison - Because you have taken away others rights.

- During War - National Security - i.e. Taking photos of British military war bases and sending them to the enemy.

- In Terrorism Situations - Locked up without charge for 28 days. 

- Censorship - The government says under some circumstances not allowed i.e. - putting up posters of nude people which can be seen as offensive. 

- Abusive Parents - Children are taken away from parents - taking away the right to family life.

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Legal Rights & Sources Of Help At Home - The Child

At Home - The Childs Rights :

- Provided with food, water, clothing and housing.

- Must not assault you to the point you are 'broken'. 

- Must not abuse or neglect.

- To be consulted.

- To leave home at 16. 

Help For Children:

- ChildLine 

- Teachers 

- Samaritans (Depression or Suicide) 

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Legal Rights & Actions At School - The Child

At School - The Childs Rights :

- Reasonable breaks 

- Not discriminated against. 

- Health and Safety. 

Actions In School:

- Join the school council 

- Contact the governors.

- OFSTEAD - Government Inspection.

- Prefect Roles - i.e. Head Boy or Girl.  

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Legal Rights & Responsibilities At Sch - The Child

Responsibilities - The Child :

- Not to obstruct others learning. 

- Be in school.

- Health and Safety.

- Respect Differences. 

Rights - The Parents :

- To an annual report. 

- See their child’s personal file.

Responsibilities - The Parents : 

- To send their child to school. 

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Legal Responsibilities At School - The Headteacher

Legal Responsibilities At School For A Head Teacher :

- Maintain The Safety Of The Children ( Ensure School Meets Health & Safety Requirements).

- Ensure Members Of Staff Receive The Correct Wage.

- Ensure Members Of Staff Are Provided With Sufficient Training. 

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Legal Rights & Responsibilities At Work

Rights : 

- Fair Pay - Minimum Wage (For Under 18's - £4.00 per hour)

- Maternity / Paternity / Sick Leave (Compassion Leave is up to the employer) 

- Contract. 

- Reasonable Breaks. 

- Treated Fairly.

- Safe Environment.

Responsibilities : 

- Safe. 

- Sufficient Training. 

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Consumer Rights

To be eligible for a refund the product doesn’t meet one of these criteria:

- Fit for purpose.

- As described. 

Satisfactory quality.

Return the product back to where it came from. 

Advertising Can't Lie : 

If an advert is lying then you would complain to the Advertising Standards Authority. 

Getting Help With Consumer Rights : 

- Citizens Advice Beuro (CAB) - Manned by volunteers, will occasionally have a solicitor.

- Solicitor.

- Office Of Fair Trading - Can advise you on which trades person to use on not to use.

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Contract Of Sale - Example

Contract Of Sale - Example : 

You go into a shop to but a book usually £5.00, the shelf label has £1.99 on it. The product has been mislabeled when you ask the shop keeper. The shop can make you pay the full £5.00, but often to keep positive customer relations they will only charge the £1.99. 

Consumer Rights Act 2015 

New 30 day right to reject faulty goods. 

- You can get a full refund.

- Returning faulty products. 

- 6 months if something goes wrong the retailer must repair or replace. If they can’t, then a full refund. 

New Digital Rights. 

- If you have music, apps or videos that don’t work correctly the company either has to repair or replace it. 

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Unions 1

Trade Unions :

NUT - National Union Of Teachers 

NUM - National Union Of Miners 

PFA - Professional Footballers Association 

UNISON - Public Workers. 

What Does A Union Do ?

- Help resolve issues. 

- Address pay and conditions.

- Training e.g.. How to manage a class.

- Compensation.

- Represent the workers to the Government. 

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Unions 2

It is a Legal and Human Right to join a Union. 

Who cannot be in a Union (So cannot strike)

- Members of MI5 / MI6 - National Security.

- Military. 

You cannot be forced to join a Union.

Employers Union (An Organization That Takes Employers Issues To The Government) :

CBI - Confederation Of British Industry’s.

Funding :

If you join a Union you will pay a monthly subscription fee:

- It costs £177.00 per year to be in the NUT.

- It costs £1000.00 per year to be in the Airline Piolets Union. 

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Identity & The 5 British Values

Why Do British People Have A Complex Sense Of Identity ?

- Diversity Of Religion.

- Cultures - Immigration.

- Travel. 

- Britain Is Diverse.

Being British Means ... 5 British Values 

- Democracy (Voting In Elections)

- Respect For Diversity (Tolerating Others)

- Rule Of Law (Policing / Prison)

- Equal Opportunities (Laws)

- Personal Freedom (Go Were We Like) 

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The UK & British Traditions

The Uk Is Made Up Of 4 Countries : 

- England : Parliment 

- Scotland : Parliment 

- Wales : Assembly 

- Northan Island : Assembly 

British Toraditions, Culture, Immigration And Community Cohesion :

Traditions - Things We Do ... 

- Royal Ascot (Horse Racing).       - Fish & Chips.                           - Wimbledon. 

- Trooping Of The Colour.            - Talking About The Weather.       - Queens Speech.

Culture : 

- Christian        - TV and Free Time 

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Diverse Society

Different Ethnicities : 

- White British     - South Asian     - Japanese

Different Religions :

- Christian     - Buddhism     - Sikhism     - Islam 

Regional Differences : 

- Weather     - Cornish Pasty / Scottish Haggis     - Accents. 

Tourism :

- London     - Lake District     - Cornwall     - Norfolk 

Dress Code :

- Asian    - Scottish 

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Immigration To The UK

History going to the UK

Empire - Indian Subcontinent , Invited Caribbean , Jews - Pre World War II. 

Today going to the UK 

- To escape wars (e.g. Syria and Afghanistan)

- Asylum seeker - comes to the UK to be safe. 

- Immigration Benefits etc. - e.g. council houses.

- Jobs.

- Family.

- Education (Oxford & Cambridge). 

- Democracy - Protection of Human Rights.

- Commonwealth (British Empire) 


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Commonwealth (British Empire) 1

Countries Which Were In Our Empire (Part Of The Commonwealth):

- India                 - Canada           - Pakistan

- Australia           - Gambia           - South Africa 

- New Zealand     - Jamaica           - Kenya 

The Commonwealth - Founded In 1931 - Established To Maintain Relationships Between The UK And Its Former Colonies As They Became Independent Nations. 

Purpose, Encourages And Safeguards : 

- Cultural Understanding.                             - Economic Development.

- Links Between People And Communities.   - Sport (Commonwealth Games).

- Democracy.                                              - Human Rights.

- Improving The Quality Of Teaching And School Leadership

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Commonwealth (British Empire) 2

 Members : 53 Developed Or Developing Countries With Historic Ties To The UK. 

UK Contribution : The UK was the founding member of the British Empire. Each member country has an equal say is decision making 

Government Policy (2016) : Strengthen the commonwealth to promote democracy in its 53 member states. Encourage the commonwealth to strengthen its institutions. 

Importance Of The Commonwealth : Britain’s long-established links with commonwealth countries have had a major effect to and from Britain. 

Reasons For Commonwealth Counties Citizens Coming To The UK (Immigration):

- A common language is spoken.  - Certain similarities in culture.  - Job Opportunities.

The British Government and other major British companies often encouraged people to move. In 1960 - Migrants from the commonwealth had tighter controls on entry by the Government and further restrictions were put in place in 1981. 

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Community Cohesion

What Makes A Community Cohesive ?

- Celebrating Events (e.g. Jubilee Street Parties)    - New Year Celebrations 

- Nottinghill Carnival     - Restaurants etc.    - Parks 

What Prevents Community Cohesion ?

- Ghettos Of Own Religion      - Lack Of Equality 

- Disparity Of Wealth

Anti - Discrimination Law 

- Race.     - Age.     - Disability.     -Gender.     - Sexual Orientation. 

How Can Local Councils Encourage Integration :

- Street Parties.     

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The European Union 1

Brief History Of The EU : 

- 1957 - It was originally an alliance for coal and steel.

- It was set up to prevent further wars in Europe.

- 1973 - The UK joined the EU (Referendum to join at the time).

Countries In The European Union : 

- United Kingdom                     - Spain 

- France                                   - Greece 

- Germany                                - Austria 

Countries Not In The European Union :

- Iceland 

- Norway 

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The European Union 2

How Does The EU Work ?

1. Council Of Ministers - Make Decisions On Policy’s. 

2. European Parliament (Made Up Of MEP's - Elected Every 5 Years) - Make EU Laws.

Advantages Of EU Membership :

- Trade (No Border Controls).   - Health Care.

- Travel (No Visa).        - Environmental Protection ( Beaches/Pollution/Fishing).

- Education.                - Employment. 

Disadvantages Of EU Membership :

- Cost Is Expensive.                             - Red Tape Regulation.

- Lack Of Border Control.                      - Media & Public Opinion. 

- Loss Of Independence / Sovereignty. 

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United Nations

- Formed After World War II To Try And Prevent Wars. 

- 192 Member Countries (Nearly Everyone In The World) 

- All Signed The UN Charter Agreeing To : 

- Resolve Disputes Peacefully And Prevent Acts Of Aggression.

- Respect International Laws And Protect Human Rights.

- Cooperate To Solve International Economic / Social / Humanitarian Problems e.g. Famine. 

General Assembly - Annual Meeting Of UN Representative. 

UN International Court Of Justice - Rules On International Disagreements. 

- UN Security Council Discuss Peace And Security. 

- Kyoto Protocol - Agreement To Pollute Less. Try’s To Stop Climate Change Form Getting Too Bad. 

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War & International Humanitarian Law

In Times Of War International Humanitarian Law Applies.

This tells countries how they should behave during times of conflict.

- Non-Combatants Should Be Protected By All Sides.

- Injured Must Be Cared For.

- Red Cross.

- Red Crescent.

- Everyone Gets A Fair Trial.

- Weapons Must Be Reasonable (No Mustard Gas Or Atomic Bombs).

- Respect Civilian Property.  

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Parliament & The Government

House Of Commons :

- If the Conservatives won the most MP's they would become the government.

- MP's are voted for in the general election. 

Political Parties Include :

- Conservatives. 

- Labor. 

- Liberal Democrats. 

House Of Lords :

- Lords are not elected. 

- They are chosen by the government.

- Lord for life. 

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Making Laws

1. The Government Draws Up A Bill.

2. The First Reading.

3. The Second Reading.

4. The Committee Stage.

5. Report Stage And The Third Reading.

(First 5 Steps Happen Again In The House Of Lords)

6. Back To The House Of Commons.

7. The Royal Assent.

8. The Bill Becomes Law And An Act Of Parliament 

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Intellectual Property

Trademark :  - Brands and Names 

Copyright :  - Music, Writing, Drawings and Photographs 

What Is Copyright Law ? - The Copyright Designs And Patent Act (1988) does not protect ideas for a work. It is only when the work itself is produced - for example when a piece of music or a book is published - that copyright automatically protects it. 

What Is Patent Law ?  - A Patents gives a citizen the legal right to stop others from copying, making, selling, or importing an invention without permission. 

Patent Law Allows The Person Holding It To : 

- Sell the invention and all the Intellectual Property (IP) rights.

- License the invention to someone else but retain all the IP rights. 

- Discuss the invention with others in order to set up a business based around the invention. 

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Business Social Responsibility

Businesses Need Community :

- Utilities.                       - Housing.  

- Rental Of Property.       - Banking 

- Council Roads.             - Waste Disposal. 

So The Business Has A Responsibility To The Community (Community Programs) :

- Support the community.     - Charities.

- Help the environment.       - Sponsor Football Teams.

- Food Bank.                      - Release Staff to spend their time supporting local schools. 

These all cost the business money, but it helps the community and makes the business look good. 

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Taxation, The Environment & Agenda 21

Q - How Can The Government Use Taxation To Help The Environment ?

- Emissions - Pay More Road Tax.                       - Congestion Charge. 

- Waste - Taxed For Disposal e.g. Chemicals.       - Air Passenger Duty. 

- Reduce Tax If Company Recycles.                     - Landfill Tax. 

Agenda 21 :

- 179 countries signed the Agenda 21 agreement, first made at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. 

- Local authorities in the UK have prepared their own local versions of Agenda 21 (Local Agenda 21) designed to reduce waste and improve the environment in their communities. 

- Most Local Agenda 21 Plans Include : Recycling Schemes, Cycle Routs, Traffic Calming Measures, Better Facilities For Pedestrians And Advice On Being More Environmentally Friendly.

- Implementing Local Agenda 21 Is Not Always Easy - e.g. People are not always happy to separate their household waste into different containers. 

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Pressure Groups

- Groups Of People Campaigning For Change Or Trying To Influence Government Policy Are Known As Pressure Groups.

EG: Amnesty International (Fight for legal rights of prisoners around the world)

       Greenpeace (Try to protect the environment) 

- Pressure Groups are different to Political Parties because they try to influence political parties. Political Parties are the ones that actually change the law (through MP's).

- Some pressure groups work closely with the government. These people are known as insiders and may often be consulted over proposed changes to policy or law.

- Others remain on the outside, choosing not to become involved with the government or the government may not want to become associated with a pressure group. 

How Can Pressure Groups Gain Public Support ? 

- Organize street marches to get media coverage which will be seen my members of the public.

- Lobby MP's  - Uses Petitions On Change.org, Facebook or Television Adverts to gain support. 

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Direct Tax & Indirect Tax

Direct Tax :

(Taxes That Can't Be Passed To Someone Else)

- Income Tax

- Inheritance Tax

- Capital Gains Tax 

- Cooperation Tax

Indirect Tax :

(Taxes That Can Be Passed To Someone Else)

- Road Tax 

- VAT (Value Added Tax)

- Excise Duty Tax 

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Public Services 1

Public Service Is A Service Provided By The Government, Either Directly (Through The Public Sector) Or By Paying For Services. 

How Dose The Government Make Sure Public Services Are Good Quality ?

- The NHS - Inspections And Checks.

- Schools - OFSTEAD Inspections and checks on : Health and Safety, Talking To Students and     Surveying Parents.

Privatizing Public Services :

For :  - Financial Incentive, More Direct.             - More Independence For How It Is Run.

         - Possibly A Higher Standard Of Service.    - Respond To Geographical Differences. 

Against :  - Human Rights Issue (I.E - Everybody Has The Right To Medical Care). 

                - Redistribution Of Wealth. 

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Public Services 2

Services Provided By Central Government :

- Police.                               - Education.

- National Health Service.      - Justice. 

- Army. 

Services Provided By Local Councils :

- Community Care.        - Street Lighting.

- Library’s.                     - Parks.

- Street Cleaning. 

Privatized Services:                 Advantages : More Choice, Higher Quality, Government 

- British Telecom.   - Water.                             Saves Costs, Individuals Save Money. 

- Railways.             - Gas          Disadvantages : Less Control 

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Fair Trade

Trading With Countries Helps Their Economic Development.

Fair Trade Helps : 

-Producers to get a decent price.       - Products are bought directly from the producers.

Fair Trade Is :

- Better for the environment.       - Guaranteed quality working conditions. 

- Guaranteed pay.                      - No child labor. 

- Longer term contracts.             - Investment in infrastructure e.g. Schools, Hospitals, Roads. 

Non-Fair Trade Is : 

- Unpredictable when it comes to pay each year.

- No guaranteed quality working conditions. 

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MEDC's Giving Aid To LEDC's

Advantages Of An MEDC Such As The UK Giving Aid To An LEDC Such As Bangladesh.

- Develops Partnerships.

- Future Implications (e.g. Bangladesh Have To Buy UK Products)

- Because It Is Considered To Be Right.

- Makes The LEDC's Economy Stronger (So They Can Pay For Education, Health Care etc.)

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Quota : The Limit On The Number. 

Tariff : Tax On Goods (By The Government) Coming Into The Country.

MEDC : More Economically Developed Country. 

LEDC : Less Economically Developed Country. 

Manufacturing : The Process Of Producing A Good.

Free Trade : Trade Between Counties That Is Not Restricted By Tariffs Or Quotas.

Fossil Fuels : A Naturally Occurring, Non-Renewable Resource eg. Coal, Oil And Natural Gas.

Global Warming : Rise In The Average Surface Temperature Of The Earth. 

Boycott : Refuse To Use Or Have Anything To Do With Something. 

Trade = Buying And Selling Goods Or Services. 

UK Makes: Pharmaceuticals (Medicines). UK Provides: Financial Services (Banking/Stock Exc) 

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National Minimum Wage

National Minimum Wage Is The Least You Can Be Paid : 

So For People Aged 25 Or Over It Is £7.50 Per Hour. 

Advantages : 

- Enough To Live On.

- Fairer.

- Reduces Poverty.

Disadvantages :

- Fewer Jobs Available Because Employers Can’t Afford To Pay The Increased Cost Per Hour. 

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Rights & Responsibilities Of The Police

Responsibilities Of The Police :

- Protect The Public.                   - Reason For Arrest.

- Uphold The Law.                      - State Rights Before Arrest.

- Their Name And Number. 

Rights Of The Police : 

- Right To Join A Trade Union.    - Right TO Maternity / Paternity Leave. 

- Right To Self Defense. 

Your Rights When Arrested :

- Right To A Solicitor.

- To Have Your Rights Read To You.

- To Know Why You Have Been Arrested (Except In Some Terrorism Occasions). 

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Courts & The CPS

Every Criminal Case Goes To A 

1. Magistrates Court (97% Of Cases Are Sorted Here)

Magistrates Are : Not Solicitors / Barristers, Not Legally Trained and Not Paid. 

They are usally a couple of men and a woman - 3 magistrates on the bench. 

2. A Case Would Then Go To A 

3. Crown Court (If the magistrate knows that the sentence would be more than 6 mounths)

Crown Cort Has A Judge And Jury (Of 12 People Off The Electoral Role)

The Judge Decides The Sentence Or The Fine. 

The Crown Prosicution Service or CPS Only Put A Case Forward If It Has A Chance Of Sucsess And Is Also In The Public Interest. 

4. Youth Courts - Young People Under The Age Of 18 Are Dealt With Here. 

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Why Use A Solicitor ?

- Good knowledge of the law.

- Experts.

- Know how to take the matter to court.

- They need to be registered.

- You can get compensation if they are wrong. 

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Civil Disputes & Criminal Offences

Civil Disputes :

Go To A County Court 

- Phone Contract             - Child Maintenance 

- Neighbor Disputes        - Divorce 

- Shops Refusing To Accept Returns On Items Not

Fit For Purpose, As Described Or Of Satisfactory Quality.   

Criminal Offences :

Go To A Magistrates Or Crown Court 

- Murder                     - Drink Driving 

- Theft (Stealing)        - Robbery / Burglary

- Fraud 

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Media & Democracy

Free Press - The Media have the right to investigate and report on issues of interest to the public. In a democracy information is uncensored so people can express their opinions without interference from the government. 

Media Laws Restrict What The Media Can Report On: 

1. Can't Publish Certain Bits Of Information Usually To Protect People - e.g. Children Who Have Committed Serious Crimes. 2. Other Laws Make Sure Reports Are Accurate And If The Media Break These Laws They Can Be Prosecuted. 

1. The Press Complains Commission (PCC) & There Code Of Practice Committee, 2. OFCOM (Office For Communications) and 3. The Advertising Standards Authority - Try To Ensure Reporting Is Accurate An Fair. 

The Media Can Influence Public Opinion By - E.G Only publishing positive Brexit news stories or not covering a famine in another part of the world. The Media can be bias when it comes to what the public see.  

Politicians Can Use Media To Promote Their Party E.G. Newspaper Articles Detailing There Manifesto Or Party Political Broadcasts. 

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really helpful thanks a lottt ***



thank you soo much for this!!!

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