The Battle of Actium
Breakdown of relations between Augustus and Mark Anthony
Anthony refuses to marry Octavia, sends her back to Rome
A's will publicly read, married Cleo, children as heirs, body taken back to Egypt if died in Rome
Sea Battle off Actium, Greek island
All Night, Augustus on flagship
Augustus victorious, A commits suicide, C follows suit, viper venom.
The Battle of Actium
Suetonius main source
Tacitus, 'Anthony killed'
Virgil, 'barbarous arms', 'while (for shame!) an Egyptian wife followed behind', gods helped Augustus to win
Horace, Rejoice for Victory at Actium! 'I shall drink with you -Jove willing- in celebration of our Caesars victory'
Suicide of Cleo, 'she did not in woman's fashion tremble at the sword'
Res Gestae, 'I added Egypt to the Empire of the Roman people'
Aug 'relinquished power'
- Would hold consulship each year
- Proconsul of Gaul, Spain and Syria for 10 years
reviewed the senate, made self princeps senatus
senate met to discuss matters, put advice forward as decree's, decree's passed by tribune.
Res Gestae, 28-27 BC, I transferred the republic from my power to the control of the senate and the Roman People
Coins, he has restored the Roman people their laws and rights, A as senator, wearing laurel wreath
Paterculus, force was restored to the laws, authority to the courts, majesty to the senate, the power of the magistrates was reduced to its former limit
Strabo, be became supreme ruler for life in war and peace, he divided the whole Empire in two parts. One he assigned to himself, the other to the Roman People
Suetonius, Twice Augustus seriously thought of restoring the republican system
Tacitus, seduced the soldiery with gifts, the people with corn...he gradually increased his power
- Proconsular Imperium, broader + less specific military power. In conrtol of all provinces requiring military power
- Tribunician Power, did not hold consulship again, BUT right to put proconsuls, consult the senate, could but business to the senate before anyone else, Tribunician Veto
- Refused dictatorship + perpetual consulship
- Only took power once during grain shortage
Tacitus, Tribunician power is the most important feature of princes
noted in all offical documentation