From Freud to fraud



Taking credit for someone else’s work or ideas

Intentional or accidental

Cryptonnesia (forgetting what you’ve read, so you just use someone else’s words)

Lack of understanding of what it is can also cause plagiarism

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Manipulation and/or distortion of existing data to create certain results

The moral boundaries are not always clear (questionable research practices or idiocy?)

Cherry picking, data mining, p-hacking, QRPs

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Making up data that did not previously exist

The clearest line, cannot be done accidentally

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Perverse incentives

Publications, which leads to funding and promotion/tenure

Publication bias and file drawer effect

Pressure to publish + publication bias towards significant results + clear, uncomplicated results more likely to be published + tendency to favour **** novel findings + deliberate falsification/fabrication = fraud

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