French Grammar


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  • Created by: charley
  • Created on: 04-03-13 18:56

Partitive Article

Partitive Article - 'Some' or 'Any'

  • Du (m.) 
  • De la (f.)
  • De l' (m/f. in front of vowel or h)
  • Des (plu.)
  • De
  • D'

 For an unknown quantity of something, after adverbs of quantity and negative construction.

To show posession of a noun use de + definite article e.g. le livre de l'etudiant : the students book

To describe a noun use de + descriptive noun constuction e.g. le livre d'etudiant : student's book

Also certain verbs must be followed by de e.g. se rendre compte de : to realize

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Indirect Object Pronouns

Indirect Object Pronouns

Indirect objects are the people or things in a sentence to or a recepient of the action of the verb e.g. Je parle à Pierre. Pierre is the indirect object.

These pronouns replace the indirect object, a person or animal

  • me/m' (me)
  • te/t' (you)
  • lui (him or her)
  • nous (us)
  • vous (you)
  • leur (them)

They are placed infront of the verb e.g. Je lui parle : I'm talking to him.

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Direct Object Pronouns

Direct Object Pronouns

Direct objects are the people or things in a sentence in which receive the action of the verb, mainly who or what? e.g. Tommy plays soccer.

These pronouns replace the direct object:

  • Me/m' (me)
  • Te/t' (you)
  • Le/l' (him or it)
  • La/l' (her or it)
  • Nous (us)
  • Vous (you)
  • Les (them)

They are in front of the verb e.g. Je le mange

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Direct or Indirect?

Direct or Indirect?

To decide between, consider the following:

1) A person or thing not followed by a preposition is a direct object e.g. I bought the book - I bought it

2) A person preceeded by the preposition à or pour is an indirect object e.g. I bought a book for Paul - I bought him a book

3) A person followed by any other preposition cannot be replaced by an object pronoun e.g. I bought Paul's book would become I bought it

4) A thing followed by any proposition can't be replaced by an object pronoun e.g. my office

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Y refers to a previously mentioned or implied place, translated as 'there'. Y usually replaces a prepositional phrase beginning with like chez, à or dans.

E.G. Are you going to the bank today? No, I'm going (there) tomorrow.
        Tu vas à la banque aujourd'hui ? Non, j'y vais demain.

        He was at Jean's house. He was there.
        Il était chez Jean. Il y était.

If the verb is not followed by a place use y. Y can also replace à + a noun that is not a person, you cannot replace the noun with an object pronoun.

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Replaces the partitive article + noun or de + indefinite article + noun. Equivalent to some, any or none.

In a sentene with an adverb of quantity or a number, plus noun, en replaces the noun and the modifier.

Replaces de + noun with verbs and expressions which need de.

Also used before present participle, 'whilst -'

E.G. Do you have any bread? Yes, I have some.
         As-tu du pain ? Oui, j'en ai.

         There are a lot of rooms. There are a lot (of them).
         Il y a beaucoup de chambres. Il y en a beaucoup.

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