The, a, some, any

Le - before masculine nouns

La - before feminine nouns

Les - all nouns in the plural

Use le/la/les before the name of a country and before a price or a quantity

Un - masculine

Une - feminine

sometimes un/une is not neccessary - e.g. je suis medicin - I am a doctor

Du - masculine                           Des - Plural               ALL mean some/any (any - questions)

De la - feminine                          De l' - Before verb with a vowel/ silent h

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The present tense

erreir  regarder  vendre  finir je  regarde  vends  finis tu  regardes  vends  finis il, elle  regarde  vend   finit nous  regardons  vendons  finissons vous  regardez  vendez  finissez ils, elles  regardent  vendent  finissent


avoir - to havealler - to gofaire - to doêtre - to be je j'ai je vais je fais je suis tu tu as tu vas tu fais tu es il, e,,e, on il a, elle a, on a il va, elle va, on va il fait, elle fait, on fait il est, elle est, on est nous nous avons nous allons nous faisons nous sommes vous vous avez vous allez vous faites vous êtes ils, elles ils ont, elles ont ils vont, elles vont ils font, elles font ils sont, elles sont

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The future 1

Use aller + infinitive - quite informal - expresses immediacy

Aller (present tense)+ an infinitive (e.g. jouer)English Je vais jouer I'm going to play Tu vas jouer You're going to play Il/Elle va jouer He/She's going to play Nous allons jouer We're going to play Vous allez jouer You're going to play Ils/Elles vont jouer They're going to play Future tense: - describe what will happen in the future

  • je - part of the verb ends in -ai
  •  tu - part of the verb ends in -as
  • il/elle - part of the verb ends in -a
  • nous - part of the verb ends in -ons
  • vous - part of the verb ends in -ez
  • ils/elles - part of the verb ends in -ont

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Irregular verbs - future

aller j'irai I will go avoir j'aurai I will have boire je boirai I will drink devoir je devrai I will have to être je serai I will be faire je ferai I will make/do pouvoir je pourrai I will be able venir je viendrai I will see voir je verrai I will see vouloir je voudrai I will want

After the word 'QUAND'  - always use future instead of present

e.g. quand je serai riche - When I am rich

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Past tense

There are two tenses - PERFECT or IMPERFECT

PERFECT - use when tlaking about an event that has happened ONCE - e.g. I went on holiday last year

IMPERFECT - to talk about an vent that took place REGULARLY - e.g. I visited my granny every week

- Also use it to talk about an event that went on for some time - e.g. I wa slistenign to my CD

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1. Take the nous form of the verb, present tense

2. Remove the 'ons' and add ending

parlerfiniravoirêtre je -ais je parlais je finissais j'avais j'étais tu -ais tu parlais tu finissais tu avais tu étais il/elle/on -ait il parlait elle finissait on avait il était nous -ions nous parlions nous finissions nous avions nous étions vous -iez vous parliez vous finissiez vous aviez vous étiez ils/elles -aient ils parlaient ils finissaient ils avaient ils étaient

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Perfect tense

1. Take present tense of avoir + past participle of the verb

  • j'ai fini
  •  nous avons fini
  • tu as fini
  • vous avez fini
  • il/elle a fini
  • ils/elles ont fini
  • -er verbs: regarder becomes regardé
  • -ir verbs: finir becomes fini
  • -re verbs: perdre becomes perdu

Etre verbs - DR & MRS VANDERTRAMP - Devenir, descendre, rester, entrer, monter, rentrer, retourner, tomber, sortir, revenir, venir, aller, arrivr, mourir, naitre, partir


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Conditional tense

I would do something



Sera - will be = Ser + ending e.g. Je serais

Ira - will go - Ir + ending e.g. J'riais

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Future 2

Something will happen e.g. I will play


  • Je - ai
  • Tu - as
  • Il/elle/on - a
  • Vous - ez
  • Ils/elles - ont

Use infinitive including 'r' then add ending

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Is the word masculine or feminine?

Words, which end as follows, are mostly masculine:

...age ...aire ...eur ...isme ...taire ...ment ...tre ...iste ...ieme ...eau ...ite

Words, which end as follows, are mostly feminine:

...ade ...ion ...ance ...ine ...esse ...ence ...ité ...lette

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I had seen / I had been thinking

1. Imperfect tense of avoir or etre + past participle

For example:

  • J'avais mangé = I had eaten
  • Il était descendu = He had gone down
  • Nous avions acheté = we had been buying
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The subjunctive

NOT  tense, it is a mood

1. Starts with ils of present tense, remove 'ent', and add ending


  • il faut que... ( it is necessary) e.g. il faut que tu fasses tes devoirs
  •  il semble que... (it seems that) e.g. il semble que tu aies raison
  •  bien que (although) e.g. bien qu'il soit intelligent, il est très idiot.
  •  pour que (in order that) e.g. il est allé en ville pour qu'il puisse acheter des souvenirs

  • vouloir que (to want) e.g. je veux que tu le fasses
  • avoir peur que + ne (to be scared) e.g. j'ai peur qu'il ne fasse quelque chose de stupide
  • craindre que + ne (to fear) e.g. je crains qu'il ne fasse quelque chose de stupide
  • préférer que (to prefer) e.g. je préfère que ce soit vous


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Irregular adjectives

  • Adjectives that already end in 'e' cannot add an extra 'e' in the feminine but they can add an 's' in the plural
  • Adjectives that end in 'f' become 've' in the feminine. Both add 's' in the plural.
  • Adjectives that end in 'x' become 'se' in the feminine.
  • Adjectives ending in 'er' become 'ère' in the feminine.
  • Adjectives ending in on/en/el/il double the last letter then add an 'e' to become feminine.

grand (e) petit (e) long (ue) beau (belle) nouveau (nouvelle) jeune vieux (vielle)

 These are adjectives that go BEFORE the noun

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Describe something - e.g. noisily, slowly

To form the adverb (for example, slowly) start with the adjective:

  1. slow = lent
  2. make it feminine = lente (remember some adjectives do more than just an 'e' to make them feminine)
  3. add ment so lentement = slowly


  • Adjectives that end in a vowel do not add an 'e' in stage 2 above.
  • Adjectives that end in ant or ent become amment/emment
  • vite stays as vite
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Direct object pronouns

The idea of the object giving something e.g. the old man gave his dog a bone

The direct object pronouns in English are:

EnglishFrench me me you te/vous him le her la it le/la us nous them les

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Indirect object pronouns

The object recieving something - e.g the old man gave the dog a bone

The indirect object pronouns are as follows:

EnglishFrench (to) me me (to) you te/ vous (to) him lui (to) her lui (to) us nous (to) them leur

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