Formation of river landforms


Formation of a waterfall

- formed when there is layer of hard rock on a layer of soft rock
- river erodes the soft rock more easily so there is a step in the river bed which slowly becomes deeper.
- hydraulic action and abrasion form a plunge pool at the bottom of the waterfall.
- erosion undercuts the hard rock creating an overhang.
- overhanging hard rock falls into the plunge pool and position of waterfall retreats.

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Formation of a meander

erosion occurs on the outside bend and deposition on the inside bend.

inside bend - slower water, less energy, deposits load.
outside bend - faster flowing water, high energy, erodes the bank and bed moving it back and making it deeper

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Formation of a floodplain and levees

where there are meanders, the river flattens the land by eroding it and depositing sediment on it, making a flat floodplain. if the river gets too full and bursts its banks, water floods over the floodplain.

the water slows down, loses energy and deposits load which is fertile. the heavier, larger particles are deposited first, building up on the river bank while smaller particles can be carried further across the floodplain. this means over time the riverbanks will build up called levees.

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