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Upbringing- Farrington (delinquent development)

  • Offending behaviour from childhood to adulthood
  • 411 boys (8-9)
  • Longitudinal
  • Aged 48- 161 had convictions
  • Aged 10-13 went commited first crime, 91% were reconvicted
  • 'Persisters'- high daring, delinquent sibling, young mother, low popularity, disrupted family
  • Early prevention is essential
  • Risk factors- criminal in the family, poor child rearing, poor school performance 
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Upbringing- Sutherland (learning from others)

  • Criminal behaviour is learned
  • Criminal behaviour is learned through interaction
  • Learning occurs within intimate personal groups
  • Learning includes techniques in commiting crime
  • They are favourable to the violation of law
  • Association with criminal vs non criminals can vary
  • Direction of motives learned from legal codes (how to play them)
  • Learning by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involving mechanisms to commiting crime 
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Upbringing- Wikstrom and Tafel (poverty and neighb

Propensity indused

  • Youths (year 10's) have a propensity to offend

Lifestyle dependent 

  • High risk factors: weak school bonds
  • Youths are average in terms of social adjustment 
  • High risk: time around peers and delinquent peers

Situationally indused

  • Lifestyle exposes them to high levels of situational risk e.g. substance abuse
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Cognition- Yochelson and Samenow (criminal thinkin

  • To understand the makeup of the criminal personality
  • 255 males from various backgrounds
  • 52 thinking patterns- Criminals are: restless, set themselves apart from others, want to live a life of excitement, are habitualy angry, lack empathy, feel under no obligation to anyone
  • Most dropped out: 30 completed to programme of interviews
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Cognition- Kohlberg (moral development)

  • Based on Piaget
  • 58 boys- Chicago aged 7, 10, 13, 16
  • 2 hour interview
  • Younger boys were at stages 1 and 2
  • Older boys were at stages 3 and 4
  • No support for stage 6
  • Thornton and Reid- criminals who commit for financial gain show more immature reasoning
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Cognition- Gudjonsson and Bownes (attribution of b

  • Relationship between type of crime commited and attributions offenders make
  • 80 criminals- Northern Ireland (divided into groups dependent on crime)
  • Sexual offenders- most remorse
  • External attribution- highest for violent offenders and lowest for sexual offenders
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Biology- Raine (antisocial and aggression in child

  • Review article
  • Low resting heart rate- seek excitement to raise arousal level- fearless temprement
  • Adolescent brain is still forming connections to the pre-frontal lobes
  • Activity in pre-frontal lobes- lower impulsive individuals and less aggressive and less antisocial 
  • Early intervention and prevention is an effective way of reversing biological deficits 
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Biology- Brunner (genes and serotonin)

  • Males had borderline mental retardation and abnormal violent behaviour
  • Deficit of enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAOA)
  • Impaired seritonin metabolism is likely to be responsible for the mental retardation
  • MAOA associated with recognisable behavioural phenotype that accounted for their inability to regulate their aggression 
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Biology- Daly and Wilson (homicide and life expect

  • Homicide rate differing as a function of life expectancy in chicago
  • Local communities life expectancy 54.3 years to 77.4 years
  • Life expectancy is effective at predicting neighbourhood specific homicide rates
  • Men are likely to increase their risk taking behaviour for short term rewards
  • Young adults are driven by adaptive traits e.g. risk taking and early reproduction 
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