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Imprisonment- Dooley (unnatural deaths)

  • Content analysis of Prison deaths in England and Wales from 1972 to 1987
  • 442 unnatural deaths
  • 300 suicide and 52 consciously self inflicted injury
  • Significantly more of suicide were on remand 
  • Unnatural deaths are being attributed to overcrowding, increasing prisoners' stress levels 
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Imprisonment- Gillis and Nafekh (planned behaviour

  • Federal offenders conditional released between january 1998 and January 2005 
  • 24,000 95% males
  • Content analysis
  • Employment- 6 months for males and 10 months for females
  • Those in employment- likely to stay on conditional release
  • Median time to return- 37 months for employed and 11 months for unemployed
  • Employed- 70% on conditonal release
  • Unemployed- 56% on conditional release
  • 64.7% are reconvicted within 2 years 
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Imprisonment- Haney and Zimbardo (past and future)

Changes to the prison system over the last 25 years:

  • 'War on Drugs'
  • Sentance to be srved with no parole
  • More prisions= more prisoners
  • Black people made up 48% of prison population but 6% of general population
  • 'Supermanx' prison

Suggestions for improvement:

  • Prisons are psychologically damaging
  • Decompression programmes
  • More situationally specific assessments
  • Psychological knowledge needs to be used to improve the nature and effects of prisons 
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Alternatives to imprisonment- May and Mair (probat

  • 3299 offenders (3300) selected from 22 probation offices in the UK
  • Interviews conducted by independent researchers
  • Closed questions and multiple choice
  • 88% found probation useful
  • 60% thought that their probation officer would help them personally
  • Only 37% said that probation would help them stop reoffending
  • Probation was seen positively 
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Alternatives to imprisonment- Sherman and Strang (

  • Content analysis of 36 papers comparing re-offending rates of people who had undergone restorative justice or not
  • Restorative justice was effective when there was a personal victim
  • Effective in providing peace of mind and reducing post traumatic stress
  • Support for restorative justice for young and first time offenders 
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Alternatives to imprisonment- Eberhardt (deathwort

  • 44 cases of a black man murdering a white man
  • Rate facial features on rating of stereotypicalness 1-11
  • 51 raters (32 white, 15 asian and 4 other)
  • Most stereotypially black were 57.5% more liekly to recieve death sentances than the less stereotypically black at 24.4%
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Treatment programmes- Cann (cognitive skills)

  • 180 offenders who started Enchanced Thinking skills (ETS) or R&R and 14 non-completers
  • Expected re-conviction rates were calcuated
  • No difference between treated group and compartison group and reconviction rate
  • R&R- significantly more likely to reoffend
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Treatment programmes- Ireland (anger management)

  • 50 prisoners completed anger management course
  • 37 prisoners who were considered as suitable
  • Quasi experiment
  • Interview- Wing Behavioural Checklist (WBC), and self report (AMA) 
  • Significant reduction in Wing based aggression in the experimental group
  • Scored lower on the self report measures
  • 92% of experimental group showed improvement on at least one measure
  • Anger management helps in the short term (didn't look at reoffending rates) 
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Treatment programmes- Wheatley (acupuncture)

  • 350 prisoners in 6 high security prisoners
  • Two trained practioners given 10-15 participants each time
  • 40 min acupuncture session
  • Qualitative data- better sleep, more relaxed, reduced cravings for nicotine
  • Quantitative data- 70% reduction in drug related incidents, 41% reduction in serious incidents, 48% reduction in positive drug therapy
  • Acupuncture works as a complementary therapy with other programmes 
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