- Western Influence and trade
Needed ports. The Black sea was to be his 'Window on the West'. He followed Sophia and Golitsyn's failed 'Southern Policy'
- International Power
Considered less important than the smallest German state in the HRE. Russia had no embassies.
Crush the Tartars who were backed by the Turks and constantly raided Russia.
- Religious motives?
Captured Muslim fortresses. Convert people?? political excuse??
- Capture Azov
Way into the Crimean sea. Strike into heart of Tartar territory.
- Strength of the Turks
Turkish naval power kept Russian army out by constant bombardment
- Lack of Leadership in Russian army
Command divided between Lefort, Gordon and Golovin, who all had to consult Peter before acting. The Streltsy refused to obey their western officers.
- Poor supply lines and technology
- Gained Austrian and Brandenburger experts
- Drafted peasant labour
- Constructed shipyards at Voronezh
- Had single commanders
Lefort of the navy and Shein of the army
- Also recruited engineers and supply officers
- Turkish reinforcements were kept at bay by new Russian fleet
- Azov forced to surrender within 2 months
Great Embassy; diplomatic failure
- Next step was to take the fortress at Kerch
- In 1696 Peter knew that his resources were not ready for an assault on the Crimean peninsula
- Hoped he could get alliances to do this
- No one in Europe was interested in a war with Turkey
Treaty of Carlowitz 1699
- Peter turned his attention to the north
- came to terms with Turkey
- Russia kept Azov
- Embassy in Constantinople
- Turks promised not to help the Tatars
Outcome of Azov
- Kick-started the Russian navy
1698 School of Navigation at Azov. Taganrog naval base.
- Western experts were brought in to help out in the shipyards and navy
- Russians sent to W. Europe to master seamanship
- Peasants moved to work on the shipyard
- Crimean tartars were silenced
- Didn't achieve opening up a route into the Med.
- 1704 Peter had to give some land back to Turkey to prevent the Sultan supporting Sweden
- Embassy in Constantinople
- Turkish Sultan became more anxious about Russian power Poltava
Charles XII fled into Turkish territory persuaded the Sultan to declare war in 1710
- 38,000 Russians faced 200,000 Turks at the river Pruth
- Peter was only saved by the fact the Turkish commanders wanted a quick end to the war.
- Peter was unprepared - last minute
- Unable to supply his troops properly
- Underestimated Turkish strength
- Overconfident after Poltava
Treaty of Adrianople 1713
- Give up Azov and Tagenrog and abandon the fleet
- Remove embassy from Constantinople
- Allow charles XII safe passage back to Sweden
- By 1713 Peter lost any gain made in the South
- 'He considered that God had turned him, like Adam, out of paradise' - Lee
- Was the massive labour and economic cost worth it?
- 'Blessing in disguise' - Peter could concentrate on the Baltic