Foreign Policy of Henry VIII

1513 FIRST FRENCH WAR

  • HVIII personally invaded France after failure in 1512
  • Wolsey responsible for huge success + decisive victory of well-planned + well-equipt expedition
  • Captured Tournai + Therouanne
  • secured victory w/ 1514 Treaty of Saint Germain 
  • Re-established Treaty of Etaples w/ HVIII agreeing to give up claim to French throne

HVIII RECEIVED WARRIOR KING STATUS + RESPECT FOR ENGLAND IN EUROPE

COST OF WAR FAR OUTWEIGHED VICTORY + FAILED TO SECURE PERMANENT BENEFITS 

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1513 FIRST FRENCH WAR / BATTLE OF FLODDEN EDITION

  • Scottish invasion + attempt to re-establish French alliance w/ absence of HVIII
  • Catherine of Aragon raised an army to defeat Scottish invasion
  • 10,000 Scottish troops killed incl. King James IV
  • Enhanced rumours of English strength + reputation of HVIII
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1518 TREATY OF LONDON

  • Impressive peace treaty between over 20 European countries
  • W greatest achievement 
  • 5 year truce = crusade led by Rome against spreading Ottoman Empire 
  • Forced HVIII to return Tournai
  • England = leading authority of the treaty = key stepping stone to power for W

ESTABLISHED BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE UNTIL 1519 + DEATH OF HRE MAXIMILLIAN 

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1520 FIELD OF CLOTH OF GOLD

  • 2 week part between English + French monarchy/nobility
  • Huge waste of money + resources w/ nothing achieved
  • Caused hostilities w/ Spain - England appeared to favour France as an alliance partner

HUGE POTENTIAL RISK W/ MAJORITY OF IMPORTANT PEOPLE ABSENT FROM ENGLAND

DEMONSTRATED HVIII ASSURANCE OF POWER + CLAIM

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1523 SECOND FRENCH WAR

  • Triggered by 1518 Treaty of London
  • Charles V (Spain/HRE) + HVIII agreed joint French invasion 
  • French nobility promised to ally w/ HVIII in rebellion against the monarchy
  • HVIII took 11,000 troops to France - neither CV or French nobility showed
  • Massive waste of money + failed to capture French throne

HVIII BASICALLY GOT STOOD UP BY SPAIN AND (SOME OF) FRANCE 

SUGGESTS HVIII WAS NOT RESPECTED/TAKEN SERIOUSLY BY EUROPEAN POWERS

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1525 BATTLE OF PAVIA

  • Franco-Spanish war
  • CV took Francis I (French king) hostage for a year
  • HVIII failed to raise enough money + use opportunity to take the French throne

CAUSED AMICABLE GRANT ISSUE/ALMOST REBELLION

HVIII OTHERWISE UNINVOLVED

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1526 LEAGUE OF COGNAC

CHARLES V TOOK POPE HOSTAGE + HALTED DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS OF HVII + ARAGON

  • W attempt at diplomatic manoeuvres as peacemaker to pacify CV 
  • Assumed CV wouldbe reasonable - obviously wrong
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1529 TREATY OF CAMBRIA

  • Peace attempt between England + France + Spain
  • England largely ignored = not as important/powerful as France + Spain
  • W final act of diplomacy before death
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1543 - 1545 THIRD FRENCH WAR

  • Part of aggressive anti-French alliance w/ Spain
  • 1544 HVIII sent 5,000 troops to conquer Boulogne - part of Anglo-Spanish agreement
  • CV abandoned alliance + made peace w/ France

HVIII STOOD UP BY SPAIN (YET AGAIN)

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