The fundamental forces

  • The fundamental forces: Gravity, Coulomb (electrostatic), Strong nuclear, weak
  • Force can be defined as: something that effects and changes the momentum of a particle and the unit to measure force is newtons (N)
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Exchange Particles

How can forces act at a distance?

  • Transient (impermanent) particles pass between particles
  • These are called exchange particles
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Linking exchange particles to forces

  • Force: Electromagnetic
  • Exchange Particle: Virtual Photon
  • Symbol(s): Y
  • Range: Infinite
  • Force: Gravity
  • Exchange Particle: Graviton
  • Symbol(s): Theoretical
  • Range: Infinite
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Linking exchange particles to forces

  • Force: Weak
  • Exchange Particle: W Bosons
  • Symbol(s): W+, W-
  • Range: Short (approx. 0.001fm)
  • Force: Strong
  • Exchange Particle: Gluon
  • Symbol(s): g
  • Range: Short (<3 fm)
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