Needed for growth and repair of body tissue, needed for the metabolism and hormones.
Proteins make up amino acids, the body needs 20 amino acids -11 are produced in the body and 9 need to be provided from a diet.
HBV (high biological value) proteins - meat, fish, diary products
LBV proteins - peas, pulses, nuts and seeds
Vegans obtain protain from nuts, beans, Quorn, cereal etc.
Protein deficiency - slow or stop of growth in children, enzymes are not produced, muscles become weak, liver doesn't function normally.
Kwashiorkor is a diesease which occurs in less developed countires when a child is taken off breast feeding and has a diet low in protein.
Functions of vitamins
Vitamin A aids night vision, forms cells on the skin. Vitamin A can be obtained from: carrots, tomatoes, mangoes and other yellow/ orange fruit and veg. Deficiency- dry skin and impaired vision.
Vitamin D aids the absorbtion of calcium for strong teeth and bones. Vitamin D can be obtained from the sun, fatty fish, eggs and margarine. Deficiency - rickets
Vitamin B releases engery and can be obtained from cereals, meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, pulses. Deficiency - beri beri, sore lips and pellagra
Vitamin C helps to absorb iron, protects agains infections, forms connective tissue. Can be obtained from citrus fruit and deficiency can cause scurvey, poor skin condition and slow healing wounds.
Functions of eggs :
Emulsification - binding oil and water e.g Mayonnaise
Binding - Bining dry ingredients together e.g. cake
Coating e.g fish cake
Enriches - Makes doughs and sauces more luxurious e.g. Hot cross Buns
Coagulates - Sets pritucts (from a liquid to a solid) e.g quiche
Aerates - adds air to product e.g Swiss rolls
Glazes - adds colour and shine e.g. sausage rolls
Yolk is higher in fat, the white is very low in fat.
You can check if an egg is old by placing in a bowl of water - an old egg would float in water as the chalazae becomes weaker and the air cell increases
High temperative preservation :
Pasteurisation - 72 C for 15 seconds
Sterilisation - 104 C for 40 minutes e.g. Canning
Chilling and freezing methods:
Cook chill - after product is cooked it is chilled to 3 C in 1 and a half hours
Blast freezing - a fan is used to reduce temperatice quickly
Dehydration: Sunlight, spray drying
Vinegar - bacteria can't servive below 4.5 pH. Used for pickeling
Salt - reducing moisture (osmosis)
Benefits of preserving
+ Prevents action of enzymes
+ We can buy products out of season
+ prevents micro-organisms from multiplying
+ Increases shelf life
Allerigies, Coeliac Disease, Lactose intolerance
Nut allergy - throat swells up and you may stop breathing depending on how servere the cindition is, it could be fatal. You cannot eat nuts, pesto, marzipan etc.
Coeliac Disease is when you cannot eat gluten products as it causes stomach pains and sometimes vomitin, you shouldn't eat breat, pasta, cakes etc. as you cannot eat gluten which is protein found in wheat.
Lactose intolerance - You can't have anything that contains milk or dairy as lactose is a sugar found in these products e.g. cheese, carbonara, mousse. Symptoms- stomach cramp, bloating and diarrhoea
Pregancy - women should consume more energy during last 3 months of pregnancy, should have plenty of Folic Acid as it prevents the baby from developing Spina Bifide. Folic Acid can be found in green vegetables and cereal