Food Technology

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  • Created by: caprice
  • Created on: 05-12-13 10:10

Relative Sweetness

              Fructose - 170             

Sucrose - 100

Glucose - 75

Maltose - 30

Galactose - 30

Lactose - 15

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Monosaccaride, Disaccharide or Polysaccharide

Monosaccharides                                                            Complex Polysaccharid

  • Glucose                                                                           -Xanthan
  • Fructoes                                                                          - Carrageen

Disaccharide                                                                         - Guar

  • Maltose - 2 glucose units                                                  - Pectins
  • Sucrose  - glucose + fructose
  • Lacotse - galactose + glucose 

Simple Polysaccharide

  • starch
  • Amylose
  • Amylopectin
  • Glycogen
  • Cellulose
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Fehling Test

A test for reducing substances, particularly reducing sugars such as glucose, fructose, maltose and lactose 

  • two solutions are mixed then boiled with the sample
  • fehling solution 1 is copper sulphate 
  • solution 2 is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and tartate buffer
  • when mixed and heated, reducing substances turn the blue solution to a brick red colour due to the production of  copper 1 oxide
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the  process which caramel is produced by heating sugars to high temperatures. A browning reaction in the absence of amino acid or proteins

when sugars are heated above their melting point to produce a range of brown substances collectivley known as caramel. 

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Maillard Reaction

a browning reaction, which is non- enzymic, resulting from the initial reaction of reducing sugars and amino acids or proteins ( amino group). it occours as the result of heating during cooking and processing , but also takes place slowly in some stored products such as dried milk, if their moisture levels are above a certain level (5%) the reation is accelerated at higher PH and retared by the addition of acid or sulphur dioxide. in some foods it causes a reduction in nutrtitive value as essential amino acids can be bound up into complexes. brown pigments are formed called meanoidins. some intermediate products and meanoidins contribute flavour and have been used in producing synthetic meat falvours

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stages of gelatinisation

the process of which a gel is formed in the case of starcha large qauntite of water is absorbes and the starch eventually cross link to gorm a 3 dimensional netwrok 

starches gelatinise ar certain temperatures ( 64 - 67 degree)

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