Vitamin A - needed for vision, healthy skin and immune system health. Found in milk, cheese, carrots.
Vitamin B1 - needed for energy metabolism. Found in pork, cereals and nuts.
Vitamin B2 - Needed for normal vision and skin health. Found in milk/milk products and cereals and bread.
Vitamin D - Needed for absorbtion of calcium. Found in egg yolks, liver, fatty fish.
Folic Acid - Works with vitamin B12 to form healthy blood cells and reduces the risk of nervous system defects in babies. Found in liver, spinach, cereals.
Calcium - Healthy bones and teeth. Found in milk, brocolli.
Iron - Needed to make healthy red blood cells. Found in red meats, spinach, fish.
Sodium - Needed for fluid balance and muscle contraction, found in salt, breads, vegetables.
Fluoride - Formation of bones and teeth, prevents tooth decay. Found in drinking water and most teas.
Carbohydrates - To provide energy to the body, broken down by amylase.
Fats - Store energy and absorb vitamins A, D, E, K. Found in meat, cheese, milk.
Protein - Needed for growth and repair. Found in meat, cheese, nuts and pulses.
The UK government have used an "eat well plate" to tell us how much of which foods we should eat.
Blue = dairy products, Green = Fruit and veg, Yellow = Carbohydrates, Red = Protein, Purple = fat and sugar
The size of each wedge represents the amount of each you should eat, for example very little Fatty and Sugary foods (small purple wedge.)
Design Question Exam technique:
- Read all the specification points and annotate them with possible ideas
- Think of two contrasting products to draw, if there is no point specifying whether it has to be sweet or savoury, do on product of each to make the products different.
- Don't spend too much time on the drawing
- ANNOTATE EVERYTHING ON THE SPECIFICATION POINTS even if it seems obvious because then you will know which points you still have left to do
- Tick off the brief points you have completed
- Draw on dimensions on the drawing to make it clear how big the product is
- Do not think that the ideas have to be really different and original, as long as they fit the brief that is fine!
Types of production
One off - A single product is made and each product made to specific requirements e.g. wedding cake. Requires individual recipe and probably skilled workers to make it, normally uses high quality ingredients at a high cost to the consumer.
Batch - Makes a specific quanity on a large or small scale, around 50 - 5000 products. Batches can be repeated as many times as required and machinery and labour needs to be flexible to change the product to making one of a similar product.
Mass - Non-stop, uninterrupted production. Used for products that are needed constantly like milk, bread and baked beans. The machinery runs constantly to meet high demand from consumers.
CAD, CAM and CNC
CAD - Computer Aided Design. This means to use a computer instead of a person to design a product, which would make the actual image of the design more accurate and is quicker than a person drawing out the design.
CAM - Computer Aided Manufacture is using computers instead of people to make products. For example, using electronic sensors to test weight changes in a product or changes in colour. This is more accurate and precise than getting a person to sense this as it reduces human error and would get a quantitative result.
CNC - Computer Numerical Control. This is used to digitally sense when food is prepared, for example digital scales or a timer on the oven. They are more accurate, quick and cheaper than employing people, but if something goes wrong it is costly and difficult to fix.
- Protein, fat (mainly unsaturated), vitamin A, iron, calcium, phosphorous
Functions and uses:
- Aeration - egg white traps air when beaten because the protein stretches
- Emulsification - Lecithin found in the egg keeps an emulsion between oil and water stable
- Coagultion - setting of the egg at 60-70 degrees
- Binding - the coagulation sticks the ingredients together as they cook
- Glazing - foods brushed with egg and the glaze truns them golden brown
- Enrobing (coating) - Holds the product together and allows things to stick to it.
Eggs can carry salmonella so should be cooked carefully before given to elderly, frail, pregnant or young people.