food tech


Manufacturers Specification

  • must include costings
  • detaied making instuctions
  • list ingredients  and precise amounts of each
  • diemnions of produtcs in millimetres
  • maximum and minimum weight/ sizes for each part of product
  • finishing details
  • quality control instructions
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Carbohydrates (SUGARS)


  • granulated sugar- general kitchen use e.g sweeten tea
  • caster sugar- finer crysts, used for baking especialy cakes and biscuits
  • brown suagrs- strong distinctive flavours, used forr ich fruit cakes, gingerbread+ christmas pud


  • sweeten products
  • preservative e.g jam
  • speeds up fermentation e.g bread
  • adds colour e.g cakes, biscuits
  • caramelisation- sugar heated until brownish liquid
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Carbohydrates (STARCH)


  • starch granules abosorb liquid
  • at 80 degrees particles break open make mixture thick+viscous
  • completed when reach 100 degrees, now from gel
  • when cooled gel solidifies in shape of mould


  • bulking agent- starch granules swell when liquid added provide bulk of product
  • gelling and thickening agent
  • modified starches- starches that ahve been treated so that they react in a particular way in certain condtions
  • gluten(a protein) in bread makes it rise, due ot co2 produces trapped by elasticity of dough
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Proteins (EGGS)


  • protein
  • fat
  • vitamins A B2 and D
  • minerals (iodine)


  • binding due ot coagulation of protein
  • coating (help food stick)
  • glazing
  • emulsification- lecithin in egg yolks helps emulsion stay stable e.g mayonaise
  • aeration- egg white traps air protein stretches
  • thickening- egg white coagulates at 60 degrees egg yolk 70 degrees sets+stays thickened
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Fats and Oils

NUTRITIONAL VALUE                            

  • stay warm          
  • source of energy
  • vitamins A, D, K, E
  • provides fatty acids (essential for structure+function body cells)                                                    


  • mainly animal sources
  • high amounts cholesterol (used cell membranes+make hormones)
  • hgih levels cholesterol increases heart disease risk


  • mainly vegetable oils
  • better for you than saturated fat
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Additives 1


  • added go prevent bacteria growth, food last longer
  • e.g sugar in jam, vinegar used to pickle foods


  • look more attractive and apealing, add colour
  • e.g caramel natural food colouring, tartrazine artificial food colouring(syrups or sweets)


  • improve taste and aroma
  • e.g herbs+spices natural flavouring, artificial swetening agent, MSG natural flavour enhancer, gives savoury taste (crisps)


  • keep food products stable
  • e.g lecithin natural emulsifier in egg yolks
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Additives 2


  • thicken products to set as gel, gelatine extracted from animals (mostly pigs)


  • make smixture rise
  • e.g yeast biological raising agent, baking powder+bicarb of soda chemical raising agents


  • some kids allergic to them
  • some bad for health (salt+sugar)
  • can disguise poor quality ingredients 
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Acids and Alkalis


  • vinegar partly breaks down proteins, in meringue makes softer chewier texture, tenderisation soften meat
  • lactic acid fermentation in milk produces yogurt, bacteria in milk breakds down sugars, acts on proteins to thicken it
  • lemon juice prevents enzyme browning (oxygen reacting with surface fruit) e.g apples
  • sharp flavour


  • bicarbonate soda raising agent in cakes
  • cornflour gives thcker texture (lemon meringue pie)
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New Technologies

FUNCTIONAL FOOD- food thats been artificially modified to provide a particular health benefit, on top of normal nutritional value e.g calcium added to fruit juices

E.G eggs containing high amount fatty acid omega- 3 by feeding hens lots omega-3

E.G genetic modifiication golden rice made to contain carotene, provides vitamin A


  • easy way provide better nutrition for people with poor diet
  • if you dont like foods you can get nutrition from other foods
  • some foods e.g golden rice, sole problems with malnutrition in poor countries


  • people must eat varied diet+exercise, cant just rely on functional foods
  • functional foods dont always provide all nutrients
  • dont tackle causes of malnutrition in poor countries
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Food Contamination and Bacteria


  • moisture
  • warmth
  • neutral pH


  • these are when bacteria grow fastest in these foods e.g meat,dairy products, gravies/ sauces, shellfish, cooked rice
  • due to high amounts of protein and moisture


when cooking food it must be 72 degrees or above in middle for all bacteria killed.

when reheating must be 72 degrees or above for at least 3 minutes

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  • salt- absorbs water from bacteria so they shrivel up and die, no moisture
  • sugar- high amounts of sugar absorbs water from bacteria so shrivel up+die


  • vinegar- too acidic for bacteria to grow, but gives food tangy taste+look brown e.g chutneys 
  • concentrated lemon juice- too acidic for bacteria, e.g fruit salads
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