food tech

Manufacturers Specification

  • must include costings
  • detaied making instuctions
  • list ingredients  and precise amounts of each
  • diemnions of produtcs in millimetres
  • maximum and minimum weight/ sizes for each part of product
  • finishing details
  • quality control instructions
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Carbohydrates (SUGARS)

TYPES

  • granulated sugar- general kitchen use e.g sweeten tea
  • caster sugar- finer crysts, used for baking especialy cakes and biscuits
  • brown suagrs- strong distinctive flavours, used forr ich fruit cakes, gingerbread+ christmas pud

USES

  • sweeten products
  • preservative e.g jam
  • speeds up fermentation e.g bread
  • adds colour e.g cakes, biscuits
  • caramelisation- sugar heated until brownish liquid
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Carbohydrates (STARCH)

GELATINISATION

  • starch granules abosorb liquid
  • at 80 degrees particles break open make mixture thick+viscous
  • completed when reach 100 degrees, now from gel
  • when cooled gel solidifies in shape of mould

USES

  • bulking agent- starch granules swell when liquid added provide bulk of product
  • gelling and thickening agent
  • modified starches- starches that ahve been treated so that they react in a particular way in certain condtions
  • gluten(a protein) in bread makes it rise, due ot co2 produces trapped by elasticity of dough
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Proteins (EGGS)

NUTRIENTS

  • protein
  • fat
  • vitamins A B2 and D
  • minerals (iodine)

FUNCTIONS

  • binding due ot coagulation of protein
  • coating (help food stick)
  • glazing
  • emulsification- lecithin in egg yolks helps emulsion stay stable e.g mayonaise
  • aeration- egg white traps air protein stretches
  • thickening- egg white coagulates at 60 degrees egg yolk 70 degrees sets+stays thickened
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Fats and Oils

NUTRITIONAL VALUE                            

  • stay warm          
  • source of energy
  • vitamins A, D, K, E
  • provides fatty acids (essential for structure+function body cells)                                                    

SATURATED FAT

  • mainly animal sources
  • high amounts cholesterol (used cell membranes+make hormones)
  • hgih levels cholesterol increases heart disease risk

UNSATURATED FAT

  • mainly vegetable oils
  • better for you than saturated fat
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Additives 1

PRESERVATION

  • added go prevent bacteria growth, food last longer
  • e.g sugar in jam, vinegar used to pickle foods

COLOURINGS

  • look more attractive and apealing, add colour
  • e.g caramel natural food colouring, tartrazine artificial food colouring(syrups or sweets)

FLAVOURINGS

  • improve taste and aroma
  • e.g herbs+spices natural flavouring, artificial swetening agent, MSG natural flavour enhancer, gives savoury taste (crisps)

EMULSIFIERS

  • keep food products stable
  • e.g lecithin natural emulsifier in egg yolks
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Additives 2

SETTING AGENTS

  • thicken products to set as gel, gelatine extracted from animals (mostly pigs)

RAISING AGENTS

  • make smixture rise
  • e.g yeast biological raising agent, baking powder+bicarb of soda chemical raising agents

DISADVANTAGES

  • some kids allergic to them
  • some bad for health (salt+sugar)
  • can disguise poor quality ingredients 
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Acids and Alkalis

ACIDS

  • vinegar partly breaks down proteins, in meringue makes softer chewier texture, tenderisation soften meat
  • lactic acid fermentation in milk produces yogurt, bacteria in milk breakds down sugars, acts on proteins to thicken it
  • lemon juice prevents enzyme browning (oxygen reacting with surface fruit) e.g apples
  • sharp flavour

ALKALIS

  • bicarbonate soda raising agent in cakes
  • cornflour gives thcker texture (lemon meringue pie)
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New Technologies

FUNCTIONAL FOOD- food thats been artificially modified to provide a particular health benefit, on top of normal nutritional value e.g calcium added to fruit juices

E.G eggs containing high amount fatty acid omega- 3 by feeding hens lots omega-3

E.G genetic modifiication golden rice made to contain carotene, provides vitamin A

ADVANTAGES

  • easy way provide better nutrition for people with poor diet
  • if you dont like foods you can get nutrition from other foods
  • some foods e.g golden rice, sole problems with malnutrition in poor countries

DISADVANTAGES

  • people must eat varied diet+exercise, cant just rely on functional foods
  • functional foods dont always provide all nutrients
  • dont tackle causes of malnutrition in poor countries
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Food Contamination and Bacteria

BACTERIA LIKE...

  • moisture
  • warmth
  • neutral pH

HIGH RISK FOODS

  • these are when bacteria grow fastest in these foods e.g meat,dairy products, gravies/ sauces, shellfish, cooked rice
  • due to high amounts of protein and moisture

PRECAUTIONS WHEN HEATING/COOKING

when cooking food it must be 72 degrees or above in middle for all bacteria killed.

when reheating must be 72 degrees or above for at least 3 minutes

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Preservation

USING CHEMICALS

  • salt- absorbs water from bacteria so they shrivel up and die, no moisture
  • sugar- high amounts of sugar absorbs water from bacteria so shrivel up+die

CHANGE Ph

  • vinegar- too acidic for bacteria to grow, but gives food tangy taste+look brown e.g chutneys 
  • concentrated lemon juice- too acidic for bacteria, e.g fruit salads
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