Food sources and diet- GCSE short course PE Edexcel

Food sources- GCSE short course PE Edexcel

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Carbohydrates

  • Main source of energy
  • Can be simple (one molecule) i.e. sugary foods such as cakes and biscuits where the energy can be used straight away
  • Can be complex (lots of molecules together)- starchy foods e.g. potatoes, pasta and rice (foods that aren't fully broken down). Energy is released more slowly
  • Should each more complex than simple
  • Complex are broken into simple carbs in the stomach- some is used straight away and some is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen
  • Should make up 55% of daily diet
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Proteins

  • Are used to help us grow and repair tissues
  • Found in animal products such as meat, fish, milk and eggs
  • Found in beans and lentils
  • Made from amino acids
  • Amino acids can be essential i.e. you can't make them in your own body (and so you must eat them in your diet) or non-essential i.e. your body can make them
  • They should make up 15% of your daily diet
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Fats

  • A source of energy
  • Provide warmth for our bodies and protection for our vital organs
  • There are saturated Fatty acids- mainly found in animal fats (e.g. butter, cheese and bacon) and usually hard at room temp
  • There are also unsaturated fatty acids- mainly found in vegetable fats and are usually liquid at room temperature such as oils
  • They should make up 30% of your daily diet
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Vitamins

  • The overall role of vitamins is for good vision, good skin, red blood cell formation, healing, healthy bones and teeth and blood clotting
  • There are two types of vitamins:

-Fat Soluble- can dissolve in fats and can be stored in the body and muscle

-Water Soluble- can dissolve in water and so are found in products containing water such as fruit and veg. They cannot be stored in our bodies, and so we need to eat these in our diet

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Vitamins

Below are decriptions of vitamins needed within our diets:

  • Vitamin A- found in milk, cheese, egg yolk, liver and carrots, is necessary for vision
  • Vitamin B1- found in wholegrains, nuts and meats, is needed to release carbohydrates
  • Vitamin C- found in fruit and vegetables, is needed to help healing and fighting infection as well as for your bones, teeth and gums
  • Vitamin D- found in milk, fish, liver, eggs and the sun, helps calcium absorbtion and so leads to stronger bones
  • Vitamin E- found in vegetable oil, and wholemeal breads and cereals, is needed for growth and development
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Minerals

  • Essential for overall health- needed or healthy bones and teeth, as well as the growth of other tissues
  • Minerals include:

-Calcium- especially important in adolecents and children during growth

             - needed for healthy bones and teeth as well as of other tissues

             - lack of it can cause osteoprosis- thin & weak bones that are more likely to                break. To prevent it, your diet needs dairy and exercise (weight bearing)

             -Found in dairy products and vegetables

-Small amounts of zinc and selenium are needed

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Minerals continued

-Iron- Essential to the blood because of its links with haemoglobin (for red blood      formation and carrying of oxygen)

-Anaemia (usually genetic) is the condition that you have if you don't have enough iron in you diet

-The symptoms of this condition include- tiredness, lethargy, pale and dizziness

-Iron supplements include spinach, bananas, liver, beans and red meats

-Sodium- this is linked to a balance of osmosis

-Within our blood, we need to keep a water balance

-Sodium is needed for regulating body water content and nerve functioning

-It is important for the functioning of cells

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Fibre

  • Although this isn't really a nutrient, it is definitely needed in your diet
  • It keeps the digestive system working properly
  • There are two types of fibre:

- Soluble (in fruits)- helps internally by reducing blood cholestral

-Insoluble- makes up the bulk of faeces because it isn't digested. This helps clear out your system and prevents constapation. It is found in wholegrains. Without it, you wouldn't be able to get rid of waste products.

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Water

  • This doesn't count as a nutrient, but it is something your body requires
  • It is the main component of many cells
  • It transports nutrients, waste and hormones, and holds oxygen
  • It controls the distribution of electrolytes (body salts)
  • During exercise, your body sweats to cool you down, and so water controls temperature
  • If you don't drink enough water, you become dehyrated, and this can affect your performance. The symptoms include dizziness, fainting, tiredness, clamy and headaches.
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Diet and sport

  • Atheletes have to think about what food will benefit them with their performance
  • DIfferent atheletes will need different diets
  • A weight lifter will eat a diet high in protein to help their muscles grow
  • An endurance athelete will has a diet that is high in carbohydrates to store their muscles with glycogen for energy
  • Carbo-loading is used by some atheletes when building up to competition. Here, they eat a lot of carbohydrate rich foods in the run up to the event. This means and ensures that their muscles and liver have enough glycogen stored to during the event, they have enough energy
  • You should eat during exercise- your digestive system may not be able to cope as the blood is being diverted to your working muscles, and not your stomach
  • You shoul alway drink during exercise to replkace the fluid you're loosing through sweat and respiration
  • You need to eat folloowing exercise however to replenish energy stores
  • Don't eat straight away- the body should be given 1-2 hours to recover
  • Within this time, you should continue drinking to prevent dehydration
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