Text 1: The Butcher's Shop
- Topping shows her shock as a child at a butcher's shop (despite being a meat-eater)
- Semantic field of meat as a metaphoric signifier of her distaste and hypocrisy of the butcher: ‘fingers fat as sausages.’ ‘meaty smile.’ These polysemic metaphors act to dehumanize the Butcher to brand him as a murderer in Toppings eyes, or alternatively highlight hypocrisy- that he is an animal yet as the right to kill animals.
- In juxtaposition to this, Topping portrays the pigs as ‘dignified martyrs’: personifying the pigs to denote them as being heroes- they have had to sacrifice their life for human consumption.
- The author also plays on the idyllic depictions of a farm in children’s books, highlighting the satirical nature of them juxtaposed with the gruesome depiction of real life. Topping achieves this through the lexis ‘smug’ ‘woolly’ ‘snowy’ juxtaposed with the lexical devices previously discussed in this overview. Phonological aspects are also important to note: the use of sibilance in ‘snowy sheep.’
- In addition, the author implements political satire through the use of ‘their porky heads voting Tory all their life’s’. The author may thus use the pigs as a semantic representation of Tory voters being oblivious, and the Butcher being to controlling politician. The author is a dedicated to the labour party and may therefore convey her attitudes through the use of this reference.
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Text 2: Eating Out
- Fanthorpe makes the poem symbolic of her growing up and her relationship with her parents and how she is dominated by her father until he dies.
- The first line is abstract and shows it is awkward for her: 'Adventures into rehearsed but unknown living' whilst the second line is more specific: 'Table napkin tucked conscientiously under chin.'
- The poem is structured like a sonnet (couplets) until the last one line stanza. Unusual beater (rhythem), 12 syllabells to a line (instead of 10) which is called Alexandrine syllabels. Represtents her unease eating out.
- No rhyme scheme.
- 'he initiated me' Formal lexis to show her father taught her. It shows him as formal and controlling.
- Father did the ordering even at the last outing. 'Mother died older' but Fanthorpe could never get used to how she was now in charge of ordering. 'autocrat's' an absolute ruler. Italics and term of endearment used to show mother's speech 'I'll have whatever you're having, dear.'
- French words used to show fine dining: 'moules mariniere' 'petit fours
- 'Or pocket them for later' show how she is inhibited by her parents.
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Text 3: The Sweet Menu
- Poem about a man eating out, with references that he is unhappy and stood up by his girlfriend.
- Semantic field of dance to show how he sees everyone else happier than him and to show contrast to him as he isn't moving: 'clap' 'spin' and 'plies'. 'everyone looks good in the light' suggesting this as well.
- Repetition of references to the chair to show the man is lonely: 'The other chair is pulled back as if someone will come.' and 'facing me is the chair'
- 'there is water in the bottle but the flower is plastic' suggests false hope and restaurants being artificial with the conjunction linking two sentences with different meanings.
- 'A lily' has a connotation to sadness as lilies are found at funerals and the short sentence emphasises his sadness and disappointment.
- 'cold north wind' pathetic fallacy shows his mood.
- 'I'd like to talk to someone about' line on it's own with no punctuation to emphasise his loneliness. 'I'd like' is repeated to show he is jealous of those around him.
- Doesn't have a rhyme scheme. Not optimistic and joyful. Lines are in couplets except the last stanza to show he feels everyone has someone except for him.
- Enjambment uses to show contrast between the cool juice and hot pizza.
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Text 4: Grandpa's Soup
- A poem about the author's sentimental importance of the soup her Grandpa made. Parallel to the memories of her Grandpa.
- Scottish lexis is used as it is a Scottish poem: 'wee' 'loch' etc
- Repetition of 'perfect size' to show how perfect the soup is and how it has taken her Grandpa time to perfect.
- Assonance: 'I will long... gone'
- Hyperbole of 'in the whole world' to show her child experiences.
- Ends in a one line stanza to act as an afterthought showing how she has remembered the name of Barley.
- Rhyme of 'I say tucking into my fourth bowl in a day' to show positive memories of her Grandpa.
- Uses Scottish expression 'Och' and rhymes it with 'loch' etc ordinary colloquial speech.
- Free verse, shaped by the speaking voice. Like the poet is reminiscing about her Grandpa.
- Scoth brooth is thick, hearty and warming. Perfect for cold, wet climates in Scotland.
- When her Grandpa dies the soup will be wrong to her as the memories will be too painful for her.
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Text 5: The Coming of Yams and Mangoes and Mountai
- This poem is about the mix of cultures between London and the Carribbean.
- "handfuls hold hidden sunset" alliteration and unpredictable collocation, they don't sound right together, this stresses the contrast of 2 countries as shows that these two countries do have similarites but they can never mix properly.
- lots of colours used to describe objects, this shows us the positive celebratative tone that is being set here as bright colours connote central american festivals which have lots of colour to celebrate. "big brown" "fleshy green" "brightness of macaw"
- simile- "congo-peas like tawny pearls"- pearls connote beauty and wealth
- metaphor- "mango soaked in sunrise" creates imagery that connotes a positive image
- "sweetness of summer settle smells" alliteration. imagery of a fresh sunny summers day
- lines 37 ans 38 form a short stanza that is unique to the rest of the poem, this gives the reader a more artifical impression of Britain and London.
- "to childrens, to parents, and the old folks" unity of age groups, everyone joins together because of food, shows the fact that carribean famnilies often have all age groups living under one roof.
- "fields of squinting Kitibus"- light out of darkness, light shows how british culture's food is becoming more colourful and interesting.
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Text 6: Glory Glory Be to Chocolate
- Humorous poem about both the positive and negative features of chocolate.
- Chocolate is something to be praised, repetition of 'glory glory' in poem and in title has a connotation to religion. Quote 'Eve's blessing' also a reference to religion. 'O sweet releaser...' like a prayer. 'manifestations' also has religious connotations. 'that ring the taste bud bells' like church bells. This makes the poems humorous due to the over the top descriptions of chocolate.
- Also dark side of chocolate. 'Cinnamon-flavoured little imps' Imps has negative connotations as does chocolate as it is unhealthy for you. However the next line uses figurative language: 'that twinkle at the tounge' to present chocolate as alluring.
- 'endomorphins' is a pun on endomorphs (scientific word for people with a large amount of body fat) and endorphins (positive hormones linked to pleasure ;) )
- oxymoron of 'divine barbaric' to show the two contrasting sides to chocolate.
- Ends on a rhetorical question: 'that makes every mouth a god?' that makes the reader question whether chocolate is good or bad or both. Also shows chocolate as no luxury as it makes every mouth a god.
- Very playful poem ;)
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Text 7: Receipt to make Soup
- A humorous poem made for Dean Swift about a recipe to make soup. It has a chatty, colloquial style. Addressed directly to recipient (Swift).
- The poem only contains two sentences and is all one stanza. To be read quickly. The first sentence is all about the cooking method and the second sentence is about what to do after cooking.
- Uses lexis typically found in recipes such as imperatives: 'Take' 'cut' etc
- The word order has been changed around (inverted syntax) to help create a rhyme: 'In a few pieces cut it, In a Stewing pan put it'
- Contains a riddle which is also a pun to test Swift's intellect: 'That which killed King Will' Answer: Thyme which sounds like time.
- It contains a joke on Swift saying the soup needs to simmer 'Thrice as long as you preech' as Swift famously held very long sermons.
- A Chapter is another Catherderal Official.
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Text 8: Beef Stroganoff', Yvonne's Tasty Tips (Bis
- A display advert for Bisto to advertise and persuade the readers of a women's magazine to buy Bisto. It has a old fashioned style from the 20th century.
- Uses colloquial language to create a friendly tone with the reader: 'pop in'
- Recipe uses imperatives: 'heat' 'place' etc
- Instead of numbered bullet points, the text uses time connectives: 'first' 'then' 'finally'
- The ingredients list gives the amounts in the imperial system as that was the system used in the 20th century. The metric values are given in brackets to not confuse modern readers.
- Image of beef stroganoff is on an old fashioned plate and image of Yvonne is in an old fashioned kitchen. Yvonne's opening message to the reader is in a font like handwriting and ends with a x (a symbol to represent a kiss).
- The text is humourous. The pun 'stronganoff' meaning strong enough is used. The text ends with an exclamation the meal is 'Magnifique!' which is ironic as the phrase is french and the meal is Russian.
- The word telly is used which is a low register lexis.
- Contains a serving amount: 'Serves 4' as traditional recipes do.
- Yvonne is a character played by Julie Walters to advertise Bisto gravy.
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Text 9: Why we all need to eat red meat
- online newspaper article to persaude people to eat more red meat
- Headline and byline like newspapers
- Short paragraphs, about 1 sentence long
- Pun 'Beefed up' informal, friendly
- Picture of chef, not in chef's whites, friendly smile, casual pose. Makes him look nice and trustworthy
- Juxtaposition of Mail online (Mail- old fashioned Gothic, Online- modern)
- Making argument, uses triplets e.g. expensive, tastless but worst of all... blah blah blah
- First person narrative, authors own experiences, makes him a more reliable narrator
- Colloquial language 'We don't need this'
- Rhetorical questions 'Why?'
- Emotive language 'I loved it'
- ALL THIS makes the text informal and approachable to readers and makes the source more reliable.
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Text 10: Tripe
- to inform about tripe
- informative, declorative sentences
- polysylambic words, sophisticated syntax for educated readers
- well structured, each paragraph has a theme. Italics are used to show some different sections as well as bold and capitals.
- Gives scientific names in brackets and dialectal names are nto as these are the names people may know.
- Disconected from the reader, very formal.
- Does not address 1st or third person. No emotive language. Simple informative (and boring!)
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Text 11: Seven simple steps
- colour scheme- blue/green creates a comfortable and relaxed feeling
- "understand and respect for vegetarian lifestyles" slogan to summarize what they do. large font positioned at the top of the page so it catches the readers eye and stays memorable
- 2 images of people both look relaxed and happy one is a celebrity, who endorses the organisation, and another a member of the public who helps to relate to the reader
- lexis- helpful, informative and informal "if it suits you" "buy recommened titles online at..."
- "seven simple steps" alliteration in title helps to grab readers attention and makes it more memorable
- sentence types- imperative- to instruct reader and give helpful advice but also persuades them to do something- each point starts with a imperative sentence "5. Learn a little about nutrition"
- simple layout in numbered steps easy to follow so reader isn't put off
- each point begins with a short sentence and continues with longer sentences to add extra detail. "Don't go it alone. Make sure you tell..."
- "cooking for you" "you can also start" personal pronoun includes reader and makes it more personal
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Text 12: Olive pizza review
- informal review of pizzerias
- vivid adjectives
- Present tense gives a sense of immediancy
- personification 'tomato sauce stands above most of it's competitors'
- Reviewers hint at their authority and expertise
- passive constructions
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