- Created by: eloisesmallbone07
- Created on: 18-01-20 15:01
· Proteins have a complex structure. When the food is cooked, proteins denature, which means that the chemical bonds holding their structure together break down.
· The proteins unravel and their shape changes
· This can be done in different ways including physical agitation, changes in temperature, acids
· Once they have denatured, protein molecules collide with other protein molecules and coagulate (join)
· During this process, water becomes trapped between the protein molecules.
· Coagulation also changes the appearance and texture of the food.
· However, if food is overcooked and coagulation happens too much, the protein tightens. This forces water out of the molecules, making it dry and chewy.
· Foams form when gas becomes trapped inside liquid
· When liquids containing proteins are agitated, the proteins inside the liquid denature and this causes them to stretch and air becomes trapped in the liquid.
· When the proteins coagulate, this air becomes trapped, creating a foam.
· However, over-whisking causes these new protein bonds to break- air escapes and the foam collapses.
· Some foams form a solid structure when they’re cooked
· Gluten is a protein found in wheat flours
· It’s formed when water is mixed with the flour to make dough and can be found in foods like bread, pasta, cakes and pastries
· Molecules of gluten are coiled- this means they are able to stretch and bend- this gives all doughs elasticity
· Doughs need to be kneaded to ‘work’ the gluten- this causes gluten strands to get longer, stronger and stretchier
· When it reaches a high temperature, gluten coagulates, and the dough stays stretched. This gives foods like well-risen bread a light, airy texture.