Food Additives

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Anti-foaming agents

  • These are added to liquids which have to be poured or pumped in a factory, such as milk or fruit juices.
  • The anti-foaming agent does what it says; it prevents the build-up of air bubbles or foam as the liquids are poured.
  • If they were not used, pipes would clog up, become blocked and leakages and wastage would occur.
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Anti-caking agents

  • These absorb moisture from dried foods without themselves becoming wet.
  • They are used in dry products to ensure the substances flow freely, for example, salt thus maintaining the desired texture.
  • Examples of anti-caking agents include: silicates, calcium phosphates, magnesium oxide, salts from some long chain fatty acids such as stearic and palmitic.
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Additives

  • Natural, nature identical or artificial types
  • Natural - obtained from natural sources e.g. purple colour from beetroot
  • Nature identical - synthetic copies of natural occuring substances as its cheaper, e.g. vanillin, extracted from vanilla pods, synthetic from plant; lignin
  • Artificial - not naturally occuring, synthetically made, e.g. saccharin
  • Used for:
  • S - shelf life, make it last longer
  • U - uniform, make all products the same
  • E - enhance flavour/texture
  • D - decay, prevent/delay process
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E-number

  • Food additives are thoroughly tested for safety before use in the EU
  • When this has happened they get given an E-number
  • Means it is safe to use
  • Still regularly tested for safety
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Colourings

  • E100 - E199
  • Used to make food look attractive
  • Sometimes added to replace lost characteristis during processing
  • Natural sources - seeds, roots, grasses
  • Synthetic - E102 tartrazine, E110 sunset yellow
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Preservatives

  • E200 - E299
  • Helps keep food for longer by slowing down/preventing decay
  • Attack enzymes in bacteris/microorganisms and stop them from functioning
  • Minimise food waste and make food safer
  • Naturally occur in small amounts, to obtain commercially have to be synthetically made, e.g. nitrates -> used in curing of meats, reduced risk of bacteria growth
  • Salt, vinegar, alcohol.
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Sweetners

  • Used to make product healthier
  • Used as a replacement in many foods
  • Makes it more widely suitable, e.g. diabetics
  • e.g. fructose syrup, used instead of glucose
  • Often used in lots of weight loss products as gives same flavour but at a lower calorie and lower cost.
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Emulsifiers

  • E400 - E499
  • Helps improve consistency of foods during storage and processing
  • Helps mix fat/oil and water and stops them from seperating
  • Hydrophobic end likes oil, hydrophilic end likes water
  • Each end attaches to the end it likes, stops separation
  • Gives a smooth texture and helps thicken sauces
  • e.g. lecithin -> found in eggs, used in salad dressings, mayonnaise
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Flavourings

  • E600 - E699
  • Improve flavour of food
  • Sometimes added to replace lost flavours
  • Used to give strong/distincitve flavour
  • Easier to sell product in competitve market
  • e.g. vanillin, herbs, fruits, berries, root, seed
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Flavour enhancers

  • E600 - E699
  • Improve flavour of food
  • Sometimes added to replace lost flavours during processing
  • Used to give strong/distinctive flavour
  • Easier to sell product in competitive market, e.g. monosodium glutamate (MSG)
  • Used to bring out the flavour of an ingredient
  • Used alot in processed foods such as ready meals, soups, sauces -> sweet and sour from a chinese takeaway
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Antioxidants

  • E300 - E399
  • Keeps food for longer by stopping chemical reactions which make foods go off/become rancid
  • Used to prevent rancidity in many products which contain a small amount of fat
  • Prevent oxidation in fruit/veg
  • e.g. vitamin C -> used with fruit/veg and in fruit juices
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Fortifications

  • The addition of nutrients lost during processing
  • Also used to *** desired nutrients to certain foods
  • Enhance the nutritional value of the product
  • e.g. fortified breakfast cereals -> nutrients
  • Added aimed towards children
  • Addition of vitmain D to margarine
  • Addition of calcium to flour
  • Addition of vitmain C to orange juice
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