Flame Tests for Metal Ions

A little rhyme i made up, makes no sense but it works!

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Flame tests results...

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Barium--  Green

Calcium-- Brick-red

Potassium-- Lilac

Lithium-- Red

Sodium-- Yellow

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Test for Carbonates

Any carbonate will produce carbon dioxide gas when you add a dilute acid.

For example, adding hydrochloric acid to sodium carbonate solution

HCl + sodium carbonate arrow (http://www.gcsescience.com/arrow.gif) sodium chloride + carbon dioxide + water.
2HCl(aq)   +    Na2CO3(aq)       arrow (http://www.gcsescience.com/arrow.gif)        2NaCl(aq)      +    CO2(g)    +     H2O(l)

Some carbonates change colour during thermal decomposition.

copper carbonate  Arrow and Heat (http://www.gcsescience.com/heat.gif)  copper oxide  +  carbon dioxide
CuCO3(s)          arrow (http://www.gcsescience.com/arrow.gif)        CuO(s)       +       CO2(g)

Copper carbonate is green and becomes copper oxide which is black.

 Arrow and Heat (http://www.gcsescience.com/heat.gif)   zinc oxide  +  carbon dioxide
ZnCO3(s)        arrow (http://www.gcsescience.com/arrow.gif)        ZnO(s)        +      CO2(g)

Zinc carbonate is white and becomes yellow zinc oxide.
Zinc oxide is yellow when it is hot

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