Flame Tests C3 AQA

flame tests.

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How to carry out a flame test

Dip nichrome wire into concentrated HCl and place in the hottest part of a blue flame to clean.

Then dip back into the concentrated HCl and then into the powder.

Place the Wire at the edge of the blue flame and observe the colour change.

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Flame Test Colours

Lithium ions produce a scarlet/bright red flame

Sodium ions produce an orange (golden yellow) flame

Potassium ions produce a lilac flame

Calcium ions produce a brick red flame

Barium ions produce an apple green flame

Copper ions produce a blue green flame

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Formation of Coloured Precipitates With Sodium Hyd

Calcium - White Precipitate

Aluminium - White Precipitate (Dissolves with excess NaOH)

Magnesium - White precipitate

Copper - Blue/ Green Precipitate

Iron (II) - Sludgy Green

Iron (III) - Rusty Brown

Ammonium - Ammonia gas turns red litmus blue

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Tests for Gases

Oxygen - Relights a glowing splint

Carbon Dioxide - turns limewater milky

Hydrogen - Extinguishes a lit splint with a squeeky pop

Chlorine - Bleaches litmus paper white.

Water - Anhydrous (White) copper sulfate turns blue.

Ammonia - Turns red litmus paper blue.

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Testing for Carbonate Ions

Add dilute Hydrochloric acid (or any dilute acid)

If carbonate ions are present carbon dioxide will be given off which turns limewater milky.

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Testing for Sulfate ions

Add dilute hydrochloric acid, followed by barium chloride solution.

If Sulfate ions are present a white precipitate will form.

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Testing for Halide (group 7) ions

Add dilute nitric acid, followed by silver nitrate solution

Chlorine = White Precipitate

Bromine = Cream Precipitate

Iodide = Yellow Precipitate

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Testing for Nitrate ions

Warm with sodium hydroxide, followed by aluminium powder.

If nitrate ions are present ammonia gas is given off.

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Organic Compounds

Organic compounds will burn/ char when heated in air

Unsaturated organic compounds will turn orange bromine water colourless

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this is really good :) well done

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