Fitness, training and exercise

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Principles of training



Overload (FITT - frequency, intensity, time, type)



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The specific effect each type of training has on the body.

A biceps curl with a weight will develop strength in the arms; it will not affect any other part of the body.

Marathon runners will undertake endurance work during their training and weight lifters will undertake strength work during their training.

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Gradually building up the level of exercise or training to ensure that fitness continues to be developed.

The body cannot adapt overnight to the increased demands of exercise. It can only do this gradually or progessively.

Training too much will result in injury and training too little will result in no fitness benefits.

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Making the body work harder than normal, so it adapts to the extra demands and becomes fitter.

1. Frequency - increase how often you train each week

2. Intensity - increase how hard you train

3. Time - increase how long you train

4. Type - (interval training, weight training, fartlek training)

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The process of losing fitness, sson after stopping regular training or exercise.

Regular weight training will build muscle bulk > stop weight training and muscle bulk will be lost.

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Using a variety of training methods relieves tedium and avoids boredom in training.

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Aerobic fitness

  • Uses oxygen
  • Long distance
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Anaerobic fitness

  • Does not use oxygen
  • Short distance
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Maximum heart rate & training threshold


To improve fitness from regular exercise you must push your heart rate above a certain level, known as the training threshold.

There are two training thresholds:

Aerobic training threshold = 60% of the maximum heart rate

Anaerobic training threshold = 80% of the maximum heart rate

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