Fitness and Training

  • Created by: ashleigh
  • Created on: 02-05-15 20:50

Benefits of fitness and exercising

  • Reasons for participating in physical activity: promote health and fitness, for social benefits, for mental benefits, and for physical benefits
  • MENTAL BENEFITS: Mental challenge, ease stress/tension, increase confidence, provide fun
  • SOCIAL BENEFITS: Meet people/make friends, develops teamwork/cooperation, earn money
  • PHYSICAL BENEFITS: Improved body shape, strengthen bones/muscles, improved posture
  • Physical fitness= the ability to perform physical activity effectively and recover quickly
  • Everyone has different bodily demands and everyone does not need the same level of fitness
  • It is important to meet the demands of your own lifestyle.
  • Exercise can help to fight illness and injury
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Benefits of exercise diagram

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Components of Fitness

The components:

  • Physical fitness- strength (muscular), speed, stamina (cardiovascular endurance), flexibility (range of movement at a joint) and somatotype (body shape)
  • Motor fitness- reaction time (difference between stimulus and reaction), agility (changing direction at speed), power (strength AND speed), balance, attitude (psychological approach) and co-ordination 
  • Aerobic- to perform low intensity activities for long periods of time
  • Anaerobic- to perform at high intensity for short periods of time
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Principles of Training

  • We use the SPORT principles:
  • Specificity= specific to the sport and muscle groups in use
  • Progression= a gradual increase in intensity to create overload
  • Overload= raising training to a higher level than normal (FITT)*
  • Reversibility= the effects of training will reverse if training stops
  • Tedium= training can become boring/tedious

*FITT= frequency, intensity, time and type

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Goal setting

Setting targets helps to be succesful, show progress and increase self-confidence. Goal setting = SMARTER:

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Agreed(with trainer)
  • Realistic
  • Time bound
  • Exciting
  • Recorded (to be ticked off)

Motivation= the drive that helps you achieve your goals, intrinsic is from within and extrinsic is from outside

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Training threshold:

  • Training must be strenuous and effective, but working too hard can cause injury and oxygen debt
  • A training threshold rate is a safe level to work at, and you should not develop oxygen debt
  • The usual area to work is within 60-80% of your maximum heart rate

Oxygen debt:

  • Training below the training threshold rate is aerobic, training above is anaerobic and will cause oxygen debt.
  • To remove lactic acid the debt must be repaid

Anaerobic and aerobic training:

  • Aerobic uses larger muscle groups and requires a shorter recovery time. It improves breathing and increases heart size
  • Anaerobic includes frequent rest periods. It improves lactic acid tolerance.
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Training Methods (1)


  • A series of exercises that work on particular muscle groups
  • The weight provides the overload
  • The higher the resistance, the fewer repetitions. This improves strength
  • The lower the resistance, the more repetitions. This improves endurance


  • A series of activities performed one after the other at different stations
  • Each activity is done for a certain amount of time with rest periods before the next station
  • It can be set for specific sports, muscle groups and components of fitness/skill
  • Progressive overload occurs if reps/time is increased each week


  • Alternate periods of high intensity activity with rest periods
  • E.g. 20 push ups, 30 second rest, 20 push ups, 30 seconds rest etc.
  • Progression can be used by more reps/more time/higher intensity/shorter rest 
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Training Methods (2)


  • Alternate periods of high intensity work with rest periods
  • To increase overload increase intensity/duration/number of work periods/reduced rest


  • Running at a constant speed for a fairly long amount of time
  • To apply overload increase intensity/distance


  • Like continuous but with varying intensity/length with low activity periods
  • To apply overload extend the length/intensity
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Training Phases


  • prepares the body
  • raises heart rate and increases blood flow to the muscles
  • includes pulse raiser, stretching and sports specific activity
  • reduces chances of injury


  • allows the body to return to normal
  • flushes out lactic acid from muscles
  • helps repay oxygen debt
  • prevents soreness later on

Fitness and exercise

  • should be aimed at the components being exercised
  • must include progressive overload
  • should devlop sports specific/team skills for the game/match 
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Effects of Exericse


  • heart gets bigger
  • resting heart rate decreases
  • improved gas exchange
  • vital capacity increases
  • stronger bones
  • better flexibility
  • muscle hypertrophy
  • stronger tendons


  • increased breathing rate as muscles need more oxygen
  • rise in pulse rate
  • sweating to cool the body
  • blood shunting from some organs to supply the working muscles 
  • rise in body temperature 
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Temperature Regulation

In order to maintain core temperature when exercising/in hot conditions:

  • Blood vessels under the skin get bigger (vasodilate)
  • Skin surface becomes red
  • Heat radiated through the skin
  • Sweat is released to cool the body
  • Panting and heavy breathing to draw in cool air and push out hot air
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Programmes of Exercise

Exercise programmes

  • concentrate on fun and fitness
  • use little equipment
  • concentratre on multiple fitness components

Aerobic programmes 

  • helps develop cardiovascular fitness
  • aims to improve muscle tone and reduce body fat
  • it is a set pattern of continuous aerobic exercises
  • led by and instructor
  • examples: step aerobics and aqua aerobics 

Body conditioning programmes

  • aim to improve cardiovascular fitness with a total body development
  • examples: pilates and yoga
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Testing (1)


  • Tests must have validity, objectivitity and a method
  • Can show if training is effective and the amount of progression
  • Example: bleep test


  • Different bodily areas and components can be tested
  • Hand and forearm grip dynamometer
  • Leg and back strength is tested with a tensiometer
  • Leg power is tested with standing long/high jump


  • The most popular are the shoulder-lift and sit-and-reach test
  • Must warm up to avoid injury
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Testing (2)

Muscular endurance

  • Press-ups for arm and core endurance, Sit-ups for stomach muscles endurance

Cardiovascular endurance

  • Cooper test is distance ran in 12 mins, bleep-test is between 20m until 3 bleeps are missed

Speed and agility

  • Run while changing direction e.g cones as obstacle, timed for speed and agility 

Reaction time

  • The ruler drop test measures how quickly someone will catch a ruler when dropped


  • Stand on one leg for as long as possible 
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