Bones, muscles and joint injures

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Specific management for fractures;       
- recent blow/fall
- sound of snapping
-difficulty moving a limb
-severe pain/tenderness
- bruising
-signs of shock

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Open Fractures

 Specific Treatment For An Open Fracture;
- keep the casualty still
- put on disposable gloves
-control any bleeding by  applying pressure to the sides of the wound  (don’t  press onto the broken bone. )

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Closed Fractures

Specific Treatment For a Closed Fracture;
- keep the casualty still
- if it’s the upper limb let the casualty support it
- if it’s the lower limb apply support above and below the injury for the casualty
- if it’s the jaw place soft padding under the jaw and sit the casualty down and tilt there head forward so blood and saliva can drain.
- if it’s the ribs sit the casualty down in the position comfortable for them
- if it’s the pelvis place a rolled up coat or blanket under the knees.
-  if it’s the neck or spine keep the casualty still and support there head and neck in the position they were found. Get a by stander to roll up a coat or blanket to support their neck and shoulders .
-treat for shock

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Specific management for dislocations;
- server pain
-shortening, bending or twisting of the area
-difficulty moving the area 

Specific treatment for a dislocation;
-keep the casualty still
-support the injury part
-dial 99 or 112
- treat the casualty for shock

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Sprains and Strains

 specific management for sprains and strains;
- difficulty moving the limb,
-pain and tenderness
distortion or swelling and bruising 

 Treatment for sprains and strains;
- if you have any doubt treat it as a fracture
- sit or lay down the casualty
- rest, steady and support
- with a icepack cold compress the area for 10 mins make sure the ice pack is covered as it can burn the skin
- if the area is a limb then surround the area with a layer of padding and then bandage it comfortably in place using gentle even pressure
-keep the limb elevated and check every 10minutues that the bandage isn’t to tight - if the casualty doesn’t respond to the treatment and your unsure of the severity then send them to hospital
RICE: rest, ice, comfortable support, elevation

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