Film Studies

if...., a clockwork orange, a gard day's night, swinging briatin 63-73

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Swinging Britain 1963-73


64 economic boom, baby boomers, self-expression (mini-skirts long hair), youth’s purchasing power, challenging traditions and older values and deference A HARD DAY’S NIGHT


66 invention of the pill (more sex), drugs (hallucinogenic), music and fashion

67 summer of love, counter culture, hippies

68 summer of hate, homosexuality (male) decriminalised, IF….

69 anti-war, anti-corruption

70 economic downtown, liberal values, male dominance

71 near feminist movement, broken authority, lost control, broken Britain A CLOCKWORK ORANGE

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A Hard Day’s Night (Richard Lester 1964)

Cast: Beatles (ringo, john, paul and George), norm (manager), grandfather, sity gent, fashion editor Simon


·         It plays on youth’s rebellion e.g. ignoring Norm, running of the party and Grandad going to the casino.

·         Male dominance, targeted around heterosexuality e.g. dancing with women and the girls chasing the Beatles, context suggests that the Beatles were homosexual, often followed by males (not shown in the film)

·         Cinema verite – filmed like a documentary, handhelds shows youth freedom.

·         Jokey performance, falling over in the first chase scene, view of camera man’s feet Can’t buy me love

·         Surreal/real? Train outside

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A Hard Day’s Night (Richard Lester 1964)

        Beatles dancing (BD) vs. Grandad in the Casino (GC). BD using own songs, happy youth. Focusing on women, uncivilised, crazy all young, rebellion shouldn’t be there, booming economy – having fun GC silent, civilised elderly, pretends to be a waiter to get money, having fun, rebelling –should be at the green room, booming economy – gambled away

·         Ringo & Grandad arrested – generation gap (youth behaving, elderly rebelling – playfulness, police being fair (offered tea – very British) relaxed law and order system. Can be compared to  the crusaders being whipped by the whips and Alex’s arrest

·         Can’t buy me love. Up-beat Beatles’ songs – freedom and change, handhelds free, see camera man’s feet, feel as if you are there – quick release to make money, generation gap – told off act calmly.

·         Meeting the fashion director Simon. Class difference use of slang and fashion sense, compared to class in ACO

·         Train scene. Mocking (snorting a coke bottle), class difference between city gent, surreal one minute inside next outside on bikes (drugs?) 

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If…. (Lindsay Anderson 1968)

Whips (rowntree and denson), scum (Jase and Billy), crusaders (mick travis, wallace, Knightly and the girl), mr and Mrs Kemp and phillip


·         Violent rebellion, shootings

·         Anti-tradition innovators

·         Male dominance (hetero and homosexuality)

·         Girls are a fantasy

·         Surreal? Political assasinations and guerrilla warfare posters (copying)

·         Naturalistic film style and performance

·         Mix of colour and b/w unsure why, random scenes

·         Claustrophobic camera shots. Close small rooms

·         microcosm of society

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If…. (Lindsay Anderson 1968)

Key Scenes:

·         Getting beaten by whips – controlled by authority, no legitimate reason – corruption, end to class deference , undermining authority

·         Classroom – microcosm of society (corruption and homosexuality, teacher and student feeling), political lesson, whip is unknowing and confused has to ask Mick.

·         Motorbike – vs. can’t buy me love, freedom, undermining authority meant to be at rugby but smoking and stealing, only non-claustrophobic shot, society, deference and liberation , heterosexuality with the girl and song (different to norm)

·         Shoot out – microcosm of society, political assassinations, the girl is involved, surreal

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A Clockwork Orange (Stanley Kubrick 1971)

Droogs (Alex de large, dim, georgie, pete) Billy Boy’s gang, Mr deltoid (lawyer), Joe (uses Alex’s room), Priest and Frank


·         Lawless/corrupt society – freedom

·         Male dominant women were objects – milk bar

·         Grotesque performance

·         First person narrative side with Alex

·         Exaggerated sex cinematic style

·         Economic austerity

·         Lock of morality

·         Liberal values vs tradition 

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A Clockwork Orange (Stanley Kubrick 1971)

·         Alex’s arrest – corrupt police force, lawyer is asked if he wants to punch him, change of times from early 60s and economic, looking up to the police – trapped. Compared with Ringo and Grandad’s arrest

·         Battlin’ boy – fighting, broken society, gang fights, theatre of ruins not art, treatment of women beaten and *****, non-diegetic music doesn’t suite the fight but is Alex’s favourite suggesting he enjoys it, stolen car

·         Beaten by his droogs as police – corruption had what was coming to him, sorry for Alex (his story).

·         Sped up sex scene ­­- uses Beethoven’s 9th symphony, sexual objects, surreal compared to can’t buy me love

·         Beat up the Tramp and reversal – corruption of society, generation gap, class difference, no law enforcement, then tramp beats Alex up, corruption karma, surreal, although kind of helped by police (ex-droogs)

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American film Noir context

1930’s great depression films suffered

   Exhibitors gave b-movies before actual films (larger audience)B movies were low budget, shot at night, smoky cheap sets, lack of stars, no special effects ,independent companies, value for money, gave directors experience.

 Noir is a mix of gangster, horror, and detective genres (not its own genre)

·         Hays code had a large impact on noir, stopped such thing like nudity and swearing

·         Post ww2, no jobs, rise of crime, corrupt police, shocked men, women were more dominant than ever, ‘castrated’ men,

·         Influenced by James M Cain, Raymond Chandler (writers) novels were made into films, had-boiled dialogue.

·         German expressionism was a movement in art, sculpture, literature and film. Depicted the real world and finished before ww2

·         Edward hopper influenced noir but art, empty cities, lonely men  bars etc

·         Freud’s ideas of sexuality , shown in noir by sex obsession, anxiety, criminal impulses, and the perverse

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Similarities between Double Indemnity (1944 billy

Smoky atmosphere

Women wants money and man wants woman

Both meet in quite rural areas

Hardboiled dialogue

Rain on the window pathetic phallecy for murder/dark setting

Urban setting

Women’s idea

Using sex to get what they want

Men is obsessive

Both men get caught/own up

Costumes on women (black and white)

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differences between Double Indemnity (1944 billy w

Double indemnity


Venetian blinds

Man in suit

Lonely man

Male gaze

Neff is controlling

Hays code

Women can’t kill

Phyllis doesn’t get away with it

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differences between Double Indemnity (1944 billy w

Last seduction



Man wears casual women literally wears trousers

Acting manly, confused about sexuality

Bridget very controlling and kills

Gets away with it frames mike

Lots of bourbon

No hays code lots of sex

Bridget plays the man in the relationship

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