ferrous metals

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ferrous metals

cast iron 

  • melting point: 1200 degrees 
  • composition: wide range of of alloys, white, grey and malleable forms
  • properties and characteristics: hard skin, brittle soft core, strong under compression, self lubrication, cannot be bent or forged.
  • uses: heavy crushing machinery car brake drums or discs vices or machine parts.

steel (mild steel)

  • mild steel: 1600 degrees 
  • composition: alloys of iron and carbon 0.15-0.35% carbon
  • properties and characteristics: tough, ductile and malleable, high tensile strength, easily joined, welded, poor resistance to corrosion, cannot be hardened and tempered, general prupose material.
  • uses: nails, screws, nuts and bolts, girders car bodies

medium carbon steel 

  • composition: 0.4-0.7% carbon
  • properties and characteristics: strong and hard, but less ductile, tough or malleable
  • uses: garden tools (trowel, fork) springs, rails
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ferrous metals 2

high- carbon steel (silversteel)

  • melting point: 1800 degrees
  • composition: 0.8-1.5%
  • properties and characteristics: very hard, but less ductile, tough or malleable, difficult to cut, easily joined by carbon heat treatment, strength decreases above 0.9%
  • uses: hand tools (hammers, chisels, screwdrivers, punches)

alloys steel (stainless steel)

  • composition: alloys, 18% chromium, 8% nickel, 8% magnesium
  • properties and characteristics:hard and tough, resists wear, corrosion- resistant, different forms affect malleability (types 18/8), difficult to cut or file
  • uses: sinks, cutlery, dishes, teapots
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ferrous metals 3

high-speed steel 

  • composition: medium carbon steel, +tungsten +chromium +vanadium
  • properties and characteristics: very hard, resistant to frictional heat even at red heat, it can only be ground
  • uses: lathe cutting tools, drils, milling cutters

high tensile steel

  • composition: low carbon steel +nickel
  • properties and characteristics: corrosion- resistant, low rate of expansion, exceptional strength and thoughness
  • uses: gears/engine valves, turbine blades

manganese steel 

  • composition: 1.5% manganese
  • properties and characteristics: extreme tougness
  • uses: chains, hooks and couplings
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