another explanation is that gender differences are because of both the patriachal society and the economy structure.
Hartman argued that men have controlled women for many reasons and mainly in hte control of labour market. this is the idea that men secure the higher end jobs and they benefit more economically compared to wome.
Barron and Norris qould agree with this idea because their idea of the primary and secondary labour market links in as women are more likely to be in hte secondary labour market with less secure jobs which are low paid meaning that because women are earning less, they are more likely to experience deprivation if they do not have supporting income.
however there is no clarity on the boarders as some jobs may be highly paid and be less secure than low paid jobs.
postmodernist would disagree as they believe that men do not control women anymore due to the development of legislations and globalisation bringing about more jobs and equality so females are as likely as men to get a secure a job. (reccession)
gender inequalities are enterly due to the patriarchal society, men have been allowed to contol women in both personal and public areas which explains why there is a lot of ineqaulities between.
firestone- the source of patriarchy is due to the biological differences between men and women for example womens ability to give birth which limits them and they are perceived as vulnerable leading to men protecting them resulting in patriarchal dominace.
parsons would agree with this because he says that there are gener differences in the roles for men and women as women havae expressive roles such as child care and domestic work and men have the instrumental doles such as being the breadwinner which leads to inequality in hte home as hte men will be in control of the money. he alaso says that these a ascribed at birth and developed with socialisation and they contribute to a healthy and smooth running of society.
Millet- disagree with the biological arguement anad argued that patriarchy was not ascribed but socially constructed therfore it can be challenged and be deconstructed therefore the gender inequalities are socially constructed as everyone is born equal.
this is the explanation that suggests that there is equality between genders, adopting the postmodern views of change in the society.
Hakim- argued that not all women are disadvantaged and that there is a rational choice in what they do. women exercise choice in relation to their position in the home and work place and many are happy eith their positions in society. so in other words, women who experience these inequalitites do so by choice each geder is capable of doing what the other gender can do in terms of work and private ineaualities.
oakley- agrees because she says that gender roles are not fixed so they can change therefore it is not valid to use them to explain the gender inequality.
the reason for gender inequalities is the economy as men are more likley to be employed than women.
Benston-women are the reserve army of labour which means that they are employed when no men are available for the job. this is contribution of the domestic labour to capitalism and the ideology of the nuclear family used. women are used to benefit he operation of hte capitalist economy.
marx would agree because he said that women are a group that is generally hired and fired easily and that they accept low income which is all usefull because it means that the bourgiousie have got someone to employ at all times if a man isnt available and they can fire them easily when a man is available.
however the idea of the reserve army of labour is critised for contradicting itself because if women are more likely to accept lower wages then why are they not employed first before men as that would help the bourguoisie make more profit.