Feminism is a structuralist/ conflict theory: based on gender, men and women are in conflict due to the way women are disagvantaged by patriarchy.
Their source of unhappiness is the male dominance society/ patriarchy.
They argue that- Marxists and Functionalists ignore the role of girls. Their studies show girls as girlfriends or bystanders instead of being known individually in a subculture. There were ALSO teddy girls, mod girls and hippie girls; but they were not known as male sociologists ignored them.
Malestream - Heidensohn
Malestream is sociology written BY males ABOUT males.
Malestream has allowed girls to exert patriarchy in society by being invisible, thus the existing dominance society is incomplete.
Thornton - Subcultural Capital
Argued that girls have invested more time doing well at school whereas boys have invested on music/ going out.... this leads to difference in their subcultural capital.
McRobbie and Garber - Bedroom Culture
They were critical on Marxists for ignoring females in subcultures.
They argued that there was a strong 'teeny bopper' subculture.
This subculture was based on: romance, fashion and the private domestic sphere of girls- bedrooms.
The key features were:
- experimenting with hair, make up, clothes
- gossiping with friends about boys
- reading and discussing Jackie magazine
The codes were:
- code of romance
- code of fashion and beauty
- code of personal life
- code of pop music
Bedroom culture didn't get too much attention because of the placement of the culture; this explains why they were invisible as it was difficult to get access to these groups.
Lincoln - Updated bedroom culture
He claimed girls' rooms are divided into zones"
- new technologies play a key role
- work zones are more likely to be hidden by more leisure-based activities such as clothes, make up and magazines
- it shows the transition from childhood to youth through teddy bears and photos.
Some of the spectacular subcultures had very active female members
e.g. Vivienne Westwood was a very influential punk.
Punk subcultures offered resistance for those women who didnt want to get married or to go to secretarial college.
Changing roles of females in subcultures - Bennett
Neo-tribes are less gendered, which has enabled girls to develop their own identities.
Changing roles of females in subcultures- Hollands
Girl Power- made girls more visible by media - sexualised females.
Women are just as likely to enjoy nights out in clubs.