• intrinsic
  • extrinsic
  • continuous
  • terminal
  • positive
  • negative
  • knowledge of performance
  • knowledge of results
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  • confidence will improve
  • motivation may increase
  • drive reduction could be prevented
  • feedback detects and corrects errors
  • good actions can be reinforced 
  • S-R bond can be strengthened
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Positive feedback

  • can be given externally - praise from teacher or coach
  • it should indicate which parts of the skill were performed correctly
  • strengthens the S-R bond
  • it motivates learners in the cognitive or associative stages
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Negative feedback

  • received after incorrect movement
  • can be intrinsic or extrinsic
  • should not be criticism
  • should suggest improvements
  • helps expert performers to perfect skills
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Extrinsic feedback

  • comes from an external source
  • learners can become dependent on external feedback
  • does not help to develop kinaesthesis
  • received through visual and auditory systems
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Intrinsic feedback

  • sensory feedback gained through proprioceptors and kinaesthesis
  • used by performers in the autonomous stage of learning
  • performers at the associative stage are still learning what the skill should feel like so they require extrinsic feedback
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Terminal feedback

  • extrinsic feedback received after movement has been completed
  • either immediately after or some time after movement has been completed
  • immediate feedback is beneficial as situation is fresh in learner's mind
  • delay in feedback gives time to think about performance
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Concurrent feedback

  • received during performance of skill
  • can be intrinsic - providing information as to how skill feels
  • can be extrinsic - in the form of verbal guidance
  • good for continuous skills
  • allows quick correction to take place
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Knowledge of performance

  • feedback concerning quality of movement
  • comes from kinaesthesis
  • only beneficial to expert performers
  • can also come from an external source
  • can motivate a performer
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Knowledge of results

  • extrinsic feedback about result or outcome of movement
  • given by teacher or coach
  • helpful in early stages of skill learning
  • helps development of knowledge of performance
  • can be positive and negative
  • can motivate performer
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