Feedback and Guidance

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  • Feedback can be given during or after a performance
  • It is most effective when given close to a performance so the performance is fresh in the participants mind
  • Feedback motivates, changes the performance and reinforces learning
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Types of Feedback

  • Knowledge of Result
  • Knowledge of Performance
  • Intrinsic Feedback
  • Extrinsic Feedback
  • Continuouse Feedback
  • Terminal Feedback
  • Positive Feedback
  • Negative Feedback
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Main Types of Feedback

  • Intrinsic Feedback - a type of continuous feedback about a performance that comes from within you.
    • e.g. to enjoy going for a jog can encourage you to repeat the activity
  • Extrinsic Feedback - feedback about a performance that comes from external sources
    • e.g. your teacher praises your attempt at passing in hockey which encourages you to continue trying
  • Knowledge of Result - is external feedback and can come from the performer being told the result of their response.
    • e.g. wanting to improve your score after an archery event might encourage you to practise harder
  • Knowledge of Performance - feedback about the pattern of movement that is or has taken place.
    • e.g. your trampolining coach might give you information about your somesalt technique which might encourage you to work on performing this in the future
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Visual Guidance 1

Visual Guidance
Definition: the use of images or demonstrations to help a learner

how it can be shown:
-demonstrations by coach/teacher or another performer

- still images: pictures/posters etc.

-moving images - videos or animations, particularly the use of slow motion

For the beginner, the use of demonstrations can be too much to absorb all at once. The coach should highlight key points of the movements that are attainable to the performer. Reinforcing these key points is known as 'cueing'. It is vital that the performer is in the correct place to see the demonstration at it's most effective. Also, the image or demonstration shown should be an accurate one. If a coach is unable to perform this movement accurately, they should consider using a more skilled perfomer

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Visual Guidance Key Points

Key points for the success of visual guidance:

1. ensuring the demonstration is accurate

2. drawing the learner's attention to the key points - known as 'cueing' - and consider using slow motion

3. ensure the learner can see essential parts of the movement or skill

4. ensure the demonstration seems attainable - to show an elite performer demonstrating a highly complex skill may lead to demotivation

5. visual guidance combined with verbal guidance for more advanced learners

6. allow time for mental rehearsal

7. visual guidance is better for less complex skills where there is less information to be absorbed

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Verbal Guidance 1

verbal guidance

definition: the use of speech to describe the desired movement or to use key words to cue the learners attention

-often used with visual guidance when giving cues to highlight key parts of the skill

-verbal cue can be used as a kind of trigger for the movement required i.e. shotputter is told to DRIVE the hip forward when releasing the shot

-can be used with more advanced learners because they have more attention bandwidth to spare so they can perform the movement and listen to what is being said at the same time

-they will also have a broader movement vocabulary and will be able to interpret the coach's words more effectively

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Verbal Guidance Key Points

key points for successful use of verbal guidance:

1. most often used with visual guidance, particularly with beginners

2. is useful when drawing the learner's attention to a certain part of the movement - known as cueing

3. keep it brief - too long-winded will lose their attention, especially beginners

4. may be used during a movement with more advanced learners, particularly those at the autonomous stage

5. the description must be clear and precise - with the use of key words

6. consider the complexity of the skill - it may be best to only use a demonstration

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Manual and Mechanical Guidance 1

manual/mechanical guidance

definition: the production of the correct movement by the use of mechanical aids or by the support of the coach. can be used by either:

1. physically moving the limb or the body of the learner into the correct position OR

2. by physically restricting their movement so only the correct movement can be acheived

Physically moving the performer is also know as 'forced response'

Physically restricting the performers movements is often used when the performer is learning a movement that carries some kind of risk. It also allows the kinaesthetic feel of the movement which can help the performer to achieve it correctly. It is important for the movement to be acheived without aid as soon as possible, so the performer is not relying on it like a 'crutch'.

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Manual and Mechanical Guidance Key Points

key points to successfully use manual/mechanical guidance:

1. it can give a kinaesthetic feel for the movement but should not be repeated for too long because it doesn't feel exactly the same as doing it unaided

2. useful for individuals but not ideal in a group situation

3. helpful at an early stage to allow performer to feel the whole movement in it's normal environment (which could have an element of risk)

4. useful when correcting an element of the movement

5. learners may get incorrect internal feedback so aid should be taken away as soon as possible (seen #1)

6. coaches should be aware of the correct way to support, especially with children and members of the opposite sex

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