February Revolution

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 26-03-19 08:29

Concessions

Support:

- August 1914, Duma showed total support for the Tsar by voting for its own suspension for the duration of the war

Opposition:

- allowed to reassemble in 1915 (became a platform for increasingly vocal critics)

- Tsar & Ministers refused to cooperate with the Zemstva or Municiple Councils (organisational success highlighted gov. failings + presented a workable alternative to Tsardom)

- The Progressive Bloc made up 236 out of 422 deputies who criticed gov. handling of the war (Tsar became the focus of political opposition)

- From 1915-16 the gov. shuffled its ministers (e.g. 4 PM's, 3 Minister's for Defence & 6 Interior Ministers - none were competent, causing chaos and confusion)

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Rasputin

Frontlines:

- Persuaded the Tsar to replace the War Minister + take personal control of the army

Influence:

- By 1916 he had secured his power with the royal family by abusing every rule (made and unmade Bishops + PM's & correctly predicted Alexei would not die in 1912)

- Stolypin created a file of Rasputin's scandals (expelled only temporarily + Stolypin was assassinated in 1911, possibly by Conservative Monarchists with influence over the Tsar)

Personality:

- He became the focus of unpatriotic influence at court (increasingly drunk, seen as sexually promiscuous, willing to accept bribes + made efforts to have his critics dismissed)

- Unpopular Tsarina was of Anglo-German descent and accused of acting as a German spy in German employ

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WW1 (The Front)

Weaknesses:

- War Minister Sukhomlinov was corrupt and lazy (By the end of 1915, the army was forced to retreat 1000km & 2 million had been killed, wounded or taken prisoner)

- Russians had open radio channels so German operators intercepted easily

- Miliyokov (War minister) forced to resign for wanting to make territorial gains in Constantinople (socialists wanted to fight a defensive war only)

Kerensky Offensive, 16th June (launched by PG):

- The socialists allowed themselves to be persuaded by the liberals (Kerensky, the new War Minister made patriotic speeches + toured the front in order to raise support)

- Soldiers could see little point in fighting for territory when everybody wanted peace

- high rate of desertion, estimated 2 million in 1917

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WW1 (At Home)

Economy:

- Rapid Inflation, by 1914-17 prices rose over 300% (as gov. expenditure increased from 4 million to 30 million roubles a year)

- grain supply reaching markets was 20% less in 1916 than in 1914 (printing money had increased wages but income still lagged behind prices)

- resources continuously channeled towards the army (General Strike brings Petrograd to a standstill with workers demanding food + peace)                                                 1. General Khablov, reports that some soldiers are defecting to the demonstrators

Peasants:

- Half of all males had been conscripted by 1917 - 80% were peasants (2.6 million horses commandeered for the army, removing the other main source of labour)

- July-August PG sent troops to stop attacks on landlord's property on 39 occasions (it increased to 105 times from September to August)

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WW1 (Overall)

Economy:

- Rapid Inflation, by 1914-17 prices rose over 300% as gov. expenditure increased from 4 million to 30 million roubles a year

- resources continuously channeled towards the army (General Strike brings Petrograd to a standstill with workers demanding food and an end to the war)

Weaknesses:

- Sukhomlinov (War Minister) was corrupt and lazy (By the end of 1915, the army was forced to retreat 1000km & 2 million had been killed wounded or taken prisoner)

Kerensy Offensive, 16th June (launched by PG)

- Kerensky (War Minister) made patriotic speeches + toured the front to raise support

- soldiers saw little point in fighting for territory when everybody wanted peace (high rate of desertion, estimated 2 million in 1917)

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