-Defendant used girlfriend as a human sheild
-Defendant was convicted as 'But for' him using her as a human sheild she wouldnt have died.
-Defendant pput cyinade in his mothers drink. She later died due to other causes.
-Doesnt pass the 'but for' test as the victim would still have died evem if the defendant hadn't put cyianide in the drink.
-Victim had problems breathing and was given a trachotomy. e died due to complications.
-Defendant was 'more than the minimal cause' as the vitim wouldn't have had to had the trachotomy if it wasn't for te defendants actions
- Victim was stabbed. CPR was performed and made injuries worse, causing the victim to die.
-Defendant wasn't 'more than the minimal cause' because victim died due to other reasons.
- Doctor treated victim with antibiotics which he was allergic too, victim died as a result.
-Chain of causation was broken due to a third part (medical intervention)
- Hitch hiker died from head injures after jumping out of the car when he thought the defendant was going to steal his wallet.
- Chain of causation was broken due to the victims own act