Facts and historians for the Exclusion Crisis 1679-81

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By how many votes did the Commons pass the Exclusi

The C's passed the EB for the 2nd time by 207 votes to 128. 

C dissoved Parl'.

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Why did the Exclusion Crisis Fail - factors

1. Theoretically problematic - exclude Caths from succession, attacking institte of hierarchy, could attack property rights. 

2. No real alternative heir. 

3. Whigs assumed C would back down as he did before. 

4. Anglicans/Tries accuse the Whigs of fomenting CW 

5. Charles' shrewd political skill - dissolve parl' when want, sit in the Lords. 

6. Charles not need Parl' grants to finance himself. 

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Charles' growing absolutism 1681-5

1. Broke the Triennial Act NOT call parl' 1684 

2. Financially stronger - no wars, increased income + renewed French pensions. 

3. Whig op largely destroyed by the failure of E - Shafts fled 

4. 1681 New Commissions of the Peace - dominated by Tories in every county. - Church appointments in hands of another committee composed of Tories.

5. 1683 - The Rye House Plot - another plot to assasinate C, probs genuine. 

6. 1684 - Dan + 3 Cath Lords, all implicated in the PP = released from the Tower. 

7. May 1684 - J restored to his position in PC + old office of Lord Admiral.

8. In Scot, persecution of Ds and Pres extremists. 

9. 1685 - New borough charters - 98 = introduced/ in preparation @ the time of Charles' death - increased royal control in important towns. 

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Smith's view on popery and arbitrary government

'The percieved symbiosis between 'popery and arbitary government' was crucial. It was almost universally believed that the two were inseperable, and that one was an infallibe indication of the other as well.' 

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Greaves' opinion on the Popish plot

it brought 'into the open issues raised by James' conversion' to Catholicism. 

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What percentage of the country was Catholic by 168

Less than 2%

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What percentage of the country was Catholic by 168

Less than 2%

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When did Oates' claims spark a wave of hysteria?

Autum 1678 - Spring 1679

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What 2 incidences spurred on the plot?

1. Murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey on 17th Oct 1678 - London Magistrate who'd originally heard Oates' claims. 

2. Revelation that Edward Coleman, former personal secretary of J + his wife Anne, had been in contact with jesuits priests + L XIV! 

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Coward quote about schizophrenia

'Seventeenth Century Englishmen had a schizophrenic attitude to Catholics'. 

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What caused such an intense fear of Catholics?

1. Rampant propaganda: 1660 over a century of anti-cath propaganda - 1653 Foxe's book of martyrs, 1605 GP, 1572 St Barts. 

2. Caths in court - Prots refused to accept the argument that these = realitively small in numbers, pointing to the no. of Caths repped among powerful groups like the aristocracy/even the monarchy! 

3. What was happening in Europe - France

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Similarities between 1641 + 1678-81

1. PP to subvert Prot Church + promote Cath in Brit. 

2. Close lnks between Popery + absolutism - king's chief ministers + leading bishops 

3. So dangerous = threat of Popery + absolutism that the campaign had to be conducted outside as well as inside Parl'. 

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How were Dan's attempts to bribe MPs in the 1670s

As efforts to introduce an arbitary and tyrannical way of gov'

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Differences between 1641 and 1679-81

1. Unlike 1641 op to the crown collapsed - better case for defending Church + social hierarchy in 1678-81. 

2. Whigs failed to secure any limitations on the king 

3. C emerged stronger from the EC - politcal skill, finance + events in Scot + Ire 

4. Whigs proposed to interefere with legit line of succession, seemed as though Tory Prop = correct - next stage could be to question the legit right of property succession. 

5. Fear of putting the country back on the road to civil war not only strengthened Tory cause, but also weakened the resolve of Whigs to push their's further. 

Fear of a 2nd revolution might have been as powerful in holding whogs back as it was in strengthening the position of the crown. 

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Scott and Knight's view on the crisisCoward

It was the threat was in the present not the future. 

- Cath conspiracy of bishops intent on undermining the church 

- Cath threat from french court and resurrgent french monarchy 

-Tol' of Caths in Ire after the removal of the Duke of Ormond as Lord Lieutenant in 1669. 

- Absolutist policies of Lauderdale in Scot 

More of a crisis of these things than J being the next in line. 

Coward: These factors were triggers, but 'this is surely taking revisionism too far'. 

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Knight's view on religion and politics

'political views were shaped by religious ones.'

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Holmes' view on court and country

'the identity and cohesion that the country party acquired doen to 1675 developed largely in response to the progress of organisation on the court side.'

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Holmes' view on court and country

'the identity and cohesion that the country party acquired doen to 1675 developed largely in response to the progress of organisation on the court side.'

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Holmes' view on the development of political parti

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Holmes' view on the development of political parti

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Scott's view on the development of political parti

'The crisis of 1697-81 did not bring the devlopment of different parties but conflicting factions and that these factions were tied together by ideology if not in organisation.' 

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By what date was Danby's pre-eminence undeniable?


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What were the 'country's common ideological polici

1. Concern for the securrity of Prot interest. 

2. Defence of Parl' independence against encroachments of Dan + the Crown. 

3. Irreverant attitude to crown prerogative 

4. Willingness to entertain limited statutory tol' for Prot dissenters.

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How long was the petition for the king call a 2nd

It was said to be 100 yards long, 90,000 signatures

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What premise did 'all' Whig candidates stand on in

That the king would not getb any supply unless he agreed to the exclusion + regular parl's. 

This was evidence of central organisation!! 

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Ogg's explanation of the Tory policy of non-resist

'even the illegal exactions of a tyrant must be passively endured - it was God's responsibility not man's to mete out justice.'

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What did the people in Oxford shout during the 3rd

'let the king live and the devil hang up all roundheads'. 

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What did Charles remind people in the 'DecTTRsTMHT

That the last time 'the monarchy was shaken off', 'liberty and property were all lost and gone.'  

The declaration was orderred to be read from every pulpit the following Sunday.  

Although not universally well recieved, it served to reinforce the growing loyalist reaction.

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Harris' view of religion's importance in the EC

'religion was a symptom rather than a cause.' 

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How long did investigations into the PP last and h

Investigations into the PP lasted until 1681 and 35 people were executed.

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What does the EC signify for Sharp?

'A collapse of political confidence.'

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Harris' view that the EC was political

'It was about Charles' style of ruling in the present.'

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To what extent was the EC political rather than re

Started due to religious concerns, but failed over fears of political motivations of Whigs. Fears over Exclusion were religious, but the EC was not about exclusion, instead about the current system of gov'. This is why it happened @ this time, C = becoming more absolutist. - Scott + Knights - 'this is surely taking revisionism too far' - Coward. 

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By how many votes was the clause that excluded Jam


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What did a contemporary say about the First Exclus

That the heightened fear of Catholcism was to such a level that the sentiment against Charles was so strong that even a dog would have been elected to Parl' above a cavlalier. 

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What limitations on a future Cath monarch did J ag

1. No church patronage 

2. Parl' have power over civil, legal and military offices

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Millers' view of Exclusionists

'Having embarked on exclusion, it became a matter of self-preservation to go through with it.'

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Bothwell Bridge June 1679

A force of Scottish Covenanters under Charles' oldest illegitimate son Monmouth were defeated by a rebellion on 22nd June at Bothwell Bridge. 

It called for an armed defence of Protestantism. But it was not a well-organised, unified movement and had little support from the Scottish elite. 

Charles followed this vic with a third declaration of Indulgence - legalised Conventicles in Public places.

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How does Charles respond to Bothwell Bridge

1. Can see how bad it would be for Monmouth to come back to London and huge support so dissolves the EP in July 1679. 

2. The pushes harder in negotiations with both French and Dutch funds to avoid the Parl' he said would be summoned in Oct. 

3. April 1679 he remodelled his PC - but this = essentially worthless, just because in PC does not mean influence with the King. 

4. Same time as remodelling of PC there = a purge of the Commissions of the peace, put local people in the hands of loyalists. 

5. Charles also announced the prorgation of the parl' that had not yet met - politics shifted from the parl' arena into the street. 

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Why did the Exclusion Crisis Fail? part 1

Actions of the Whigs: initially in strong position, petitioning, pass the EB 207 votes to 128, but many refused argue logical - parl' = people's rep, response to dissolution 3rd EP typifies their weakness, no obvious candidate for succession, many repelled by revolutionary implications of exclusion. 

Actions of CI: concilatory (unlike dad), prerogative powers dissolve + reorganise Parl', lenient - 2nd TA + try to compromise, DTTRTMHTDTLTP - made whigs look more extreme, quo warranto, allowed persecution of dissenters to calm Anglican prejudices, could prorgue because of crown's financial position, not prepared to comp on Exclusion, wait for support to rally against his op. 

Use of press/media: The utilisation of media to produce proaganda was critical to the development of the EC, for the whigs = terror of previous cath regimes + debate in coffee houses + pamphleteering 200 e pamphlets allowed laspe in liscensing act 1662, Tories terror = fomenting CW lead to destruction of church + Monarchy - oservator l'Estrange 

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Why did the Exclusion Crisis fail? Part 2

A glance could have said King's prerogative powers = enough to win the day, HOWEVER, COULD ALSO ARGUE THAT THE BATTLE FOR EXCLUSION NEEDED TO BE WON ON THE STREETS AS WELL AS IN PARL'. 

1682 - elections whigs lost the city, therefore couldn't be used as an organ for Whig propaganda. 

4. Differences between 1641 and 1678-91: Possession of London, Scot + Ire, Judicary = staunchly behind Charles. 


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What did Whigs fight exclusion for?

The 'lives, liberties, property and religion' of the country.

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What was Charles' financial situation by 1678

In 1678 he had an income of £1.3 mill - growing economy + +'sed collection of excise - 17th C = mercantile revolution. 

By March 1681 negotiations with L had proved fruitful, C = recieving a sum of £115,000 pa for 3 yrs, in return for not summoning Parl' for 3 yrs. 

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Miller's argument for the utility of the support o

'The support of the Church was to prove indispensible to the crown in weathering the storms of 1679-81 and in rebuilding its authority thereafter.' 

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Religious repercussions of the EC

1. Increased presecution of Quakers + continued persecution of dissenters = a direct appeal to the Anglicans who'd supported him during the crisis. 

2. Failure of any op to C's breach of the Triennial Act in 1684 - demonstrates political issues = easily overlooked as long as C = acting in accordance with religious views. 

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Political repercussions of the EC

1. Continuation of political divisions indicates that the crisis had been politically motivated. 

2. Rye House Plot June 1682 = continuing op of the Whigs. 

3. Quo warranto, C need to purge whig op from local gov' 

4. Relaxation of recusancy fines - from 70% in 1678 to 6% in 1681 - illustrates that maybe C could get away with Cath tol'. 

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Miller's interpretation of the EC

The 'exclusion campaign was the logical culmination of the C's growing distrust of both J + C'. 

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Hutton's view of the EC

'The events of 1679-81 had changed an enormous amount, but settled nothing.'

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Smith and Scott

Set the EC in the context of a series of interrelated crises: 

1. Question of succession. 

2. Nature of gov' + threat of absolutism. 

3. Relationship between crown + people.

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