Facts and historians for James II + the 'GR' 1685-88

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What advantages did James have at the beginning of

1. Tory Parl' shows confidence in J to begin with - only 50-60 Whigs + Tories were in local gov'. 

2. 1681-85 Quo Warranto - redrafted town charters, wanted them ahd to prove loyal to C, consequently loyal to J + +'s of Tories. 

3. Legit heir - end of EC 

4. Strongest financial position, still growing - granted excise for life, all guaranteed revenues were given, right to collect custom for 8 years = £2 mill. 

5. Biggest advantage = show J's strength - 2 failed rebellions: Monmouth = easliy put down + Argyl rebellion = put down in the North. 

6. Sympathy because of the EC + desire for stability. 

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What actions did James take to achieve his aims?

1. Put Caths in key positions 

2. Uses the law - 1686

3. Church - 1686

4. Declarations of Indulgence 1687 + April 1688

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Who does James replace with the Earl of Sunderland

Halifax, Rochester + Clarendon 

- Replaces with Sunderland because he is a Cath convert. 

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What are the trigger factors of the 'GR'?

1. What's happening in Europe: - Revoction of the Edict of Nantes oct 1685 - French hugs turn up in Eng, horrific stories of persecution + cruelty 

- Ire - softening up of Ire to use against Eng 

- Scot = absolutism - justification for Scot DoI 'absolute power, which all our subjects are to obey without resolve.      

2. Birth of James's son June 1688 - Cath succession, future of cath reign - tory policy of NR breaks 

- April 1688: DoI, birth of son in June conforms future of Catholicism. 

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Macaulay + Trevelyan's view of James

J was a wicked king, anxious to establish a catholic depotism in Eng. 

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How did James hope to establish the rights of Eng

Repealed the penal laws, the Corporation Act of 1661, and the Test Acts of 1673 + 78. 

Once done he believed that Catholcism would triumph without anu compulsion by the state.

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Why were doubts about granting James hereditary re

Some wanted a temp grant 'to be renewed from time to time so that Parl' might be consulted the ofterner'. 

'Landed parl' were less anxious about granting taxes on trade than on land. 

Therefore J recieved: 

1. A life grant of the crown's hereditary revenues 

2. An ample supply of trad. revenues from customs duties 

Reservations = overcome by MPs recognition that the crown needed £ to supress the rebellions of Argyl and Monmouth in the Summer of 1685.   

However, once the rebellion was over differences between the king + Tory-Anglican opinion became apparent. 

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Why did James bring his second session of parl' to

1. Made known his intensions to repeal test + corp acts 

2. Characteristic lack of political guile not disband the army raised to fight Mon + promotions against the Test Act - Halifax already dismissed from PC when opposed this - arbitary? 

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Thanks to Talbot, what percentage of the Army was

40% of officers 

67% of the R+F 

And percentages steadily began to increase from thereafter. 

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What was James' justification for his Scottish Dec

'Absolute power, which all our subjects are to obey without reserve.' 

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How many high court judges did James replace in th

James replaces 6 who overrule the court and consequently the High Court gives James the power to dispense individuals from the Test Acts. 

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Jones' view about James' attempts to 'pack' Parl'

James' campaign to pack parl' may have been well-concieved because an alliance with the urban middle class would have created a 'synthetic ruling class' with time. 

REALLY????? -Anti-cath = too strong. 

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Smith quote about religion and politics

'The percieved symbiosis between 'popery and arbitary government' was crucial' 

Religion and politics were intrinsically linked. 

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How many JPs were Catholic by 1688?

Despite a concentrated effort to purge the commission of the peace - 75% of JPs removed after the introduction of the 3 standard questions in Oct 1687 - less than a quarter of JPs were Cath.

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How did James purge the provinces in Oct 1687 in a

1. There was a sustained propaganda campaign - extolling the benefits of liberty of conscience + arguing for the repeal of the Test Act. 

2. Methods that had been used to procure a Tory HofC in 1685 were used again. - The closeting campaign was renewed and its scope extended, asked: 

  • Support the repeal of the Test Act? 
  • Assist the election of people that would? 
  • Support the Dec of I?  

This led to the purging of disloyal JPs, + therefore 75% of JPs were replaced. 

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What 2 factors broke the Tories' policy of Non-Res

1. The Trial of the 7 Bishops - June 1688 

2. Birth of Cath son + heir - 10th June 1688

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What had the CW done to the position of the king?

The CW had changed the position of the King, he could only rule with the consent of Parliament.

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How did James alienate the Anglican Tories 1685-9?

1. Parliament + the law - through his attempts to 'pack' parl' - 3 standard questions Oct 1687, arbitary - dispensing powers + Court of Ecclesiastical Commission.

2.  Army - Keep it after Monmouth's rebellion in summer 1685    

3. Religion + the Anglican Church  - 2nd sesssion of his 1st Parl close after 2 weeks, intention to repeal Test + Corp acts, Directions to Preachers 1686, Parl' not submissive to J 'cause Anglican as well as Tory, Decs of Indulgence 1687 + April 1688, Trial of the 7 bishops, Birth of his son. 

4. Ire Replace Clarendon with Talbot 1687 - Cath Army 

5. Scot  - Justification for his DoI in Feb 1688

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How did James alienate the Anglican Tories 1685-9?

1. Parliament + the law - through his attempts to 'pack' parl' - 3 standard questions Oct 1687, arbitary - dispensing powers + Court of Ecclesiastical Commission.

2.  Army - Keep it after Monmouth's rebellion in summer 1685    

3. Religion + the Anglican Church  - 2nd sesssion of his 1st Parl close after 2 weeks, intention to repeal Test + Corp acts, Directions to Preachers 1686, Parl' not submissive to J 'cause Anglican as well as Tory, Decs of Indulgence 1687 + April 1688, Trial of the 7 bishops, Birth of his son. 

4. Ire Replace Clarendon with Talbot 1687 - Cath Army 

5. Scot  - Justification for his DoI in Feb 1688

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How did James alienate the Anglican Tories 1685-9?

1. Parliament + the law - through his attempts to 'pack' parl' - 3 standard questions Oct 1687, arbitary - dispensing powers + Court of Ecclesiastical Commission.

2.  Army - Keep it after Monmouth's rebellion in summer 1685    

3. Religion + the Anglican Church  - 2nd sesssion of his 1st Parl close after 2 weeks, intention to repeal Test + Corp acts, Directions to Preachers 1686, Parl' not submissive to J 'cause Anglican as well as Tory, Decs of Indulgence 1687 + April 1688, Trial of the 7 bishops, Birth of his son. 

4. Ire Replace Clarendon with Talbot 1687 - Cath Army 

5. Scot  - Justification for his DoI in Feb 1688

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Pincus' view of the 'GR'

'English revolutionaries in the Glorious Revolution created a new kind of modern state'. 

'It was not a tame event', the population were 'revolutionaries not reactionaries'. 

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Coward's view of the 'Glorious revolution'

It 'brought no fundamental alteration to the constitution'. 

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What does Will profess that he has come to defend?

'Liberty and property, laws and rights' - not say that he's come to be king, therefore please the Tories. 

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Harris' view of the religious consequences of the

There 'was an Anglcan revolution in the atumn of 1688.' 

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What was the Mutiny Act of 1689?

It declared that it was illegal for the monarch to hold a standing army in peacetime, unless it was agreed so by Parl'. 

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Smith's view on the financial settlement of the GR

'The long-term significance of the financial settlement was immense'.  

- Period of permanent war meant that the crown was heavily dependant on parl'. 

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Miller's view on the financial settlement of the G

It was deliberate that financial settlement, half of the total revenue of £1.2 mill went to the crown for civil gov' and that the other half could be spent on the war, meant that the crown immediately went into debt so that Parl' could control the monarch by witholding supply. 

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Israel's view of 'GR'

The events of 1688-89 were not instigated and managed by the English, was not revolution but an invasion. 

- Past historians = too Anglo-centric

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What do Whigs claim that William did for the count

Saved the country from Catholicism 

- And it likely that his contemporaries thought the same. 

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Macaulay and Trevelyan why the GR was 'G'

It put the country on the road to a Parliamentary constitutional monarchy. There was the chance for constitutional change, sharp break from trad. authoritarian, personal monarchy. 

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What was the 'tipping point' that gave Parl' more

That due to the inadequate financial settlement of March 1689 Will had to rely on Parl' to fund his war on the contenent. 

This meant that Parl' could gain more constitutional power because Will needed money + was therefore willing to compromise his prerogative. 

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What oath did W+M have to swear to during their co

They were bound to rule 'according to the statutes in Parl' agreed on'. 

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Where were the McDonald clan massacred for their r

Glencoe

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Hill's view on the 'Revolutionary' action of invit

In this respect at least, the revolutionary events took place between 1640 and 1649.    

'The events of 1688-89 were simply a manifestation of the new power relations of England.' 

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Morrill's assessment of the 'GR'

It was a 'sensible revolution'. 

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