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ANCIENT EGYPT

FACTORS THAT HELPED:

individual genuis Imhotep (2730BC)

religion- egyptian relgious belief in life after death helps the knowledge of human body, they were mumified by priests increasing knowledge of anatomy, 

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:

Technology: lack of anatomical knowledge because of lack of technology.

Religion: Egyptians weren't allowed to dissect over and above the removal of soft organs. Lack of experimental dissection for religious reasons limited what they learnt about the anatomy.

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ANCIENT GREECE

FACTORS THAT HELPED: 

individual genuis: Hippocrates (460BC-377BC), Aristotle (384BC-322BC) 

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:

Science and technology: Lack of anatomical knowledge due to lack of technology. 

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ANCIENT ROME

FACTORS THAT HELPED: 

Individual genuis: Galen (129-199AD)

Government: Romans had a strong government backed up by an extensive civil service and were able to develope their excellent public health system. 

War: The Romans needed fit soldiers so they developed a good public health system. Roman soldiers also provided the need for progress in battlefield surgery. 

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:

Science and technology: lack of anatomical knowledge due to the lack of technology

War: Barbarian tribes attacked Rome in 410AD.

Religion: Religious attitudes hindered Galen. He could only base his anatomical work on the wounds of gladiators and the dissection of animals. 

Tradition: Conservitive doctors opposed Galen. 

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MIDDLE AGES

FACTORS THAT HELPED: 

Communications: Gutenburg 1454 and its use by Caxton, England in 1476 greatly speeded up the spread of new 'renaissance ideas'.

Individual genuis: Avecianna (Ibn Sina 980-1037AD). Rhazes (860-925AD)

Religion:Work of the christian monks in the middle ages- a christian duty to look after the sick.

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:

science and technology: the lack of anatomical knowledge due to the lack of technology.

War: The western empire collapses and the dark ages emerge. 

Religion: Later religious groups (medieval christians and muslims) prevented the critiscism of Galen because Galen had rejected the polytheistic.

 

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THE RENAISSANCE

FACTORS THAT HELPED: 

Individual genuis: Pare (1510-1590 AD), Vesalius (1514-1564AD), Harvey (1578-1657AD)

Science and technology: Scientific observation and enthusiasm for scientific enquiry during the renaissance, eg the royal society founded in 1660. 

Religion: Renaissance and reformation-questioning of Roman catholic belief by religious reformers, Luther, Calvin and Zwingli led to a questioning atmosphere in which more progress was possible. 

Chance:Pare runs out of oil and has to use a mixture of eggs, rose oil and turpintine-proving more effective than burning oil. 

War: Pare developed a soothing lotion to replace cauterisation also developed artificial limbs. 

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:

Science and technology: lack of anatomical knowledge = lack of technology

Tradition:Pare's methods, many surgeons contined to use boiling oil because its what the knew

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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

FACTORS THAT HELPED: Communications: Lister first read Pasteurs germ theory in the Lancet which led to his development of carbolic spray. 

Individual genuis: Jenner (1749-1823), Pasteur (1822-1895), Koch (1843-1910)

Science and technology: science develops. scientists and chemists use technologies like microscope. Scientific and technological methods lead to machines and materials. 

Chance: charles chamberland (pasteur's assisstant) injected chickens with weakened cholera by mistake- Pasteur's meeting with the boy bitten by a dog-developed rabies vaccination. 1885.

War: Crimean War (1853-1856) helps the development of nursing.

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:War: Finance directed away from research and care. 

Religion: Religious groups opposed the use of anaesthetics as they believed pain was natural.

Tradition: opposition to Jenner and his smallpox vaccination in 1796 because they feared they'd loose money. Christians opposed the use of chloroform, opposition to nursing improvements

Government: Laissez Faire prevented public health action. 

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20th C

FACTORS THAT HELPED: 

Individual genuis: Fleming (1881-1955), Florey and Chain (1898-1979), Barnard (1922-)

Science and technology: surgical technology progressed allowed the first heart transplant (1967)

Government: first social security reforms, National insurance, fund work in penecillin, NHS 1948

Chance: Fleming discovered penecillin. Fleming noticed by chance the bacteria killing qualities of the mould penecillin notatum by chance in 1928. 

War:WW1 and blood tranfusions. War created ability for Landsteiner work on blood groups&tranfusions.WW2 helped development for penecillin and plastic surgery. Mass produce penecillin. 

FACTORS THAT HINDERED:

War: Finance directed away from research and care. 

Government:  Opposition to increased spending during the devate on the NHS in the 1940s.

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