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Factors that helped- WAR

Building an Empire involved WAR. The
Romans needed fit soldiers so they
developed a good public health system.
Roman soldiers also provided the need for
progress in battlefield surgery• War wounds give surgeons like Pare (1510
1590) opportunities. Pare developed a
soothing lotion to replace cauterisation. Also
developed artificial limbs and new surgical
tools• Crimean War (1853 -56) helps the
development of nursing. Gave Florence
Nightingale the opportunity to conduct her
work in Scutari.• Franco - Prussian 1871 war helps rivalry
between Pasteur and Koch. Both men's work• First World War (1914-18) and bloodtransfusions. War created the impetus for the application of Landsteiner's work on blood groups and transfusions. Second World War helped to developpenicillin and plastic surgery. Penicillin first mass produced in 1942 in response to the demand created by the casualties of War.

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Factors that helped- COMMUNICATIONS

Invention of the printing press by Johann. Gutenberg 1454 and its use by Caxton in England in 1476 greatly speeded up the spread of new "Renaissance" ideas. Industrial revolution 1750 onwards. Better transport; canals, roads, rail. Electric telegraph and greater and greater communication stimulates debate. Medical journals such as the "The Lancet" allowed scientists to share and developed idea. (e.g. Lister first read about Pasteur's germ theory in The Lancet which led to his development of carbolic spray in surgery inthe1860's)

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Factors that helped- GOVERNMENT

Romans had a strong government organisation backed up by an extensive civil service and were thus able to develop their excellent public health system. French and German governments helped. Pasteur and Koch. In the 1860s-1880'stremendous progress in the development of vaccinations e.g. Chicken cholera, rabies,anthrax etc.Liberal government in Britain (1906-1916) -first social security reforms and National Insurance for health care set up in 1911. British and American governments fund work in penicillin - Florey and Chain 1938-1944.Labour government set up NHS 1948 - free health care for all

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Factors that helped- CHANCE

Pare runs out of oil 1536 - had to use a mixture including eggs, rose oil and turpentine- proved far more effective than boiling oil! Charles Chamberland (Pasteur's assistant) injected chickens with weakened strain of chicken cholera by mistake - discovered by chance then the weakened or attenuated culture had made the chickens immune 1880. Pasteur and his meeting with the boy bitten by a dog - developed rabies vaccination 1885. Fleming and Penicillin. Fleming noticed by chance the bacteria killing qualities of the mould penicillin notatum by chance in 1928

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Factors that helped- RELIGION

Egyptian religious belief in life after death helps knowledge of the Human body. Bodies were mummified by priests increasing knowledge of anatomy. Surgical tools also advanced.Islamic belief in looking after the sick and the elderly. Work of Christian monks in the Middle ages - a Christian duty to look after the sick. Renaissance and reformation - questioning of Roman Catholic belief by religious reformers such as Luther, Calvin and Zwingli led to a questioning atmosphere in which more progress was possible

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Factors that helped- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Scientific observation and enthusiasm for scientific enquiry during the Renaissance e.g. The Royal Society founded 1660. Science develops during the Industrial Revolution allowing scientists and chemists to use technologies like the microscope in the mid Nineteenth century. Use of science in research, chemicals developed. Scientific and technological advances lead to machines and materials e.g. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X rays in 1895 Surgical technology and scientific progress allowed for the first heart transplant operation by Christian Barnard 1967

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Factors that helped- INDIVIDUAL GENUIS

Imhotep (2730BC) Hippocrates (460-377BC) Galen (129-199 AD) Avicenna (980-1037AD) Pare (1510-1590 AD) Vesalius(1514-1564AD) Harvey (1578-1657 AD) Jenner (1749-1823 AD) Pasteur (1822-1895 AD) Koch (1843-1910) Lister (1827-1912) Chadwick (1800-1890) Simpson (1811-1870) Nightingale (1820-1910) Beveridge (1879-1963) Fleming (1881 -1955) Florey (1898-1968) and Chain (1906-1979) Barnard (1922-)

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Factors that hindered- WAR

Barbarian tribes attacked Rome 410AD. The

Western Empire collapses and the Dark Ages

emerge. Knowledge of the ancients lost and public

health systems collapsed

Loss of medical learning in the destruction of war

Finance directed away from research and care in

all wars especially during 19th and 20th century


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Factors that hindered- RELIGION

Egyptians were not allowed to dissect over and above the removal of soft organs. Lack of experimental dissection for religious reasons limited what they learnt about anatomy. Religious attitudes hindered Galen. He could only base his work on anatomy on the wounds of gladiators and the dissection of animals. He therefore made mistakes - mistakes not rectified until Vesalius in 1543 AD. Later religious groups including both medieval Christians and Muslims prevented criticism of Galen because Galen had rejected the polytheistic.Romans religion and had come to believe in one god.Religious groups opposed the use of anaesthetics in the 19th century as they believed pain was a "natural" part of childbirth. They were almost exclusively men! Tradition Conservative doct

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Factors that hindered- TRADITION

Conservative doctors opposed Galen. Opposition to Fare's methods. Many battlefield surgeons continued to use boiling oil because it was what they knew. Opposition to Jenner and his smallpox vaccination 1796 - because doctors feared that they would lose money. The public at large also feared that by being injected with cowpox they would develop the features of cows - not until 1840 that the vaccination was widely available Christians opposed the use of chloroform. Opposition to nursing improvements (e.g. the male doctors at Scutari 1854-56 originally objected most strongly to the idea of Nightingale and other female nurses being in the hospital) Objections to welfare state (e.g. the British Medical Association feared that doctors would become poor)

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Factors that hindered- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Lack of anatomical knowledge. People did not know about germs and blood groups because of lack of technology e.g. powerful microscopes not invented until the Nineteenth century. Lack of technical knowledge prevented manufacture of effective microscope before this. Germ theory and the identification of blood groups therefore not possible.

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Factors that hindered- GOVERNMENT

Lack of stability and organisation before the

modern period (with the exception of the Romans!)

prevented progress in public health.

• Laissez faire prevented action on public health

problems such as cholera during the Industrial

Revolution in Britain

• Opposition to increased spending during the

debate on the NHS in the 1940s

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