Factional Struggle

  • Created by: 13gpascoe
  • Created on: 03-01-20 13:33

How far was England Prot by the end of Henry's rei

  • 1536 - PoG.   1537 - Bishop's Book brings other 4 sacraments back. 
  • 1543 - The King's Book,
  • Roman Catholic re-write of the Bishop's Book (1537)
  • Defined the doctrine of the English Ch 
  • Full title = ' a necessary doctrine & erudition for any Christian man, set furthe by the Kynges Majestie of Englande.' H8 is behind its publication, bringing back Catholicism. 
  • H8 asserts presence of all 7 sacraments,supports 6 Articles Act (1539) as he had done in 1521 in his publication "Assertio Septum Sacramentorium" (against Luther)
  • 1543 - Act for the Advancement of the True Religion 
  • Restricted the reading of the Bible to clerics, noblemen, gentry and richer merchants (in eng, everyone can read Bible - get ideas - knowledge=power - dangerous! - therefore limits reading)
  • Women (below gentry rank) servants, apprentices, the poor, forbidden to read it 
  • Women (of gentry and nobility) allowed to read it only in private 
  • H8 - driving force behind this, Act repealed under Ed 
  • Stopping people promoting Prot, after this, 6A's and kings's book, Eng is CATHOLIC by LAW 
  • But reformers have won the factional struggle as GOV = PROT, H8 trusts Cranmer (holds his hand when he dies)
  • Catherine Parr - Prot, Ed - being raised a Prot so REFORMERS HAVE WON 
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Henry's Opposition

  • Start of reign: Thomas More said H8 is "the beginning of our joy." End, Charles Dickens "He was a spot of blood and grease on the history of England."
  • Ed DLP & Rich DLP still alive (Ed = in tower, Rich = in Fr) Best chances for restoration of Yorkists to the throne. 1513 - H8 goes to fight in Fr, doesn't want to leave Ed so has him killed.
  • Rich DLP - recognised as RIV by K of Fr, but dies fighting for Francis at Battle of Pavia, 1525
  • H8 suspicious of anyone with independent land and wealth. Orders Wol to watch leading nobles inc Charles Brandon & Duke of Buckingham. Buck = opponent of Wol + careless, conversations about how "henry might not be King for much longer" > executed in 1521
  • Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, bullied into agreeing to make H8 his heir, due to his family's involvement in PoG. He dies in 1537 - crown inherits all his land. No Earl of NL after this until D of NL under Ed who isn't of Percy fam. Percys rise again under Eliz.
  • Pole brothers, grandsons of George, Duke of Clarence (RIII's brother, Teddie's father) Not a massive threat but... Reginald Pole (Maggie's son, doesn't want crown but he's a Cath, York, anti-prot & anti-BWR) openly sides with Pope in 1530's, made a Cardinal, H8 sends assassins, they fail. Brother, Geoffrey imprisoned, Brother, Lord Montague executed with Henry Courtenay in 1539 after Exeter Conspiracy. Thier kids kept in prison in case of further executions.
  • Discovery of plotting in Yorkshire, 1541, Wakefield Plot, led to Margaret, Countess of Salisbury (Maggie) execution.
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Reformists: PROT: Cromwell, Cranmer, Edward Seymour, & Wobble (in 1538/9), John Lambert

Conservative: ROMAN CATH: Oppose rise of new men: Duke of Norfolk (AB uncle), Earl of Surrey (Norfolk's son), Bishop Gardiner 

7 Factional Struggles, Reformers ultimately WIN.

1538 - Execution of John Lambert, put on trial as a heretic for denying transubstation was true. Cromwell supposedly asked for him to be forgiven.

FS1) Cromwell's Downfall. C vs R = Cons 

  • 1536 - Cromwell made a noble, Baron of Wimbledon, after AB execution. Jan 1539 - made Chief noble of Privy Chamber & removed Norfolk & Gardiner from PC. April 1540 - made Earl of Essex (this is after Anne of C failed marriage !! Either he wanted to lull him into a false sense of security or there was an element of forgiveness?)
  • Steps to execution: 1538 - Lambert, 1539 - Act of 6As. Jan 1540 - Cleves. Accusations of heresey, plotting by the Howards!
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Factional Struggles cont

  • Why does Cromwell fall ?? 
  • Factions - Norfolk wants C gone, sees him as a poltical rival, he also has a grudge - C diss the mons. E.g. Thetford Priary, on Norfolk's land, TC closed it down, Norfolk had to dig up his families' bodies and re-bury them. So Norfolk uses Cleves mistake by dangling 17yr old C.H.
  • Religion - doesn'e enforce Act of 6As, shelters Prots, trying to stop them from burning, Norfolk accuses him of heresy. 
  • H8 fed up with Cromwell + Anne of Cleves marriage 

FS 2) Catherine Howard R vs C = R

  • Howard fam, led by Norfolk, want to increase influence and restore a more conservative relig
  • Plot to remove Crom by arranging a romance with the King in order to spread lies about Crom, marriage was a bonus. H8 married C.H. on the same day Crom was executed. 28th July 1540.
  • C.H. has a lack of political sense, Cranmer wants revenge on Norfolk for Crom, plans to do it through his niece, C.H. 
  • C.H. has an affair with Thomas Culpepper - gentlemen of PC - and already had a precontract to marry Francis Dereham. Cranmer informs H8, Cran tried to offer C.H. a way out through annulement but she denied. TC, FD executed & CH on grounds of treason on 13th Feb 1542.
  • Norfolk falls because of this, claims he didn't know about her youth. 
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Factional Struggles cont

FS 3) Cranmer's Crisis C vs R = R      1543

  • Cons (Gardiner) want to get rid of Cranmer, revenge for CH and Norfolk, accuse him of heresy
  • Cranmer promoted reformers, encouraged preaching, H8 religious views going in a more Cath direction, 1543 - Act for Advancement, King's Book.
  • H8 told Cranmer of heresy accusation, told him to investigate (himself) - said he was not a heretic. H8 plays Cons faction, says Cranmer should be seized and sent to Tower. But he'd given Cranmer a ring indicating his support, plot plays out, Cranmer presents ring, survives.
  • Gardiner and Cons reprimanded. 

FS 4) Gardiner R vs C = C      1544    

  • Cranmer revenge on Gardiner, G's nephew = his secretary, devout Cath, refused to take Oath of Sup so was executed. Cran, Suffolk and Ed.Seymour argued G probably doesn't accept Act of Sup either so plan to send him to Tower.
  • Gardiner warned, begs H8 for mercy, G had always agreed with Sup despite being Cath, H8 pardons him. So C win but R are still in a string position. 
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Factional Struggles cont

FS 5) Katherine Parr C vs R = R     1546 

  • 1543 marries KP, open Prot, minimal influence on H8 but her household became a centre for Prot, encourages it at court with H8 permission but Cons want her gone, don't like her 'influence' on H8. 1546 - interrogate her friend Anne Askew, v.prot, preaches. Put her on the rack, want her to incriminate the Queen, want her to say she's a heretic. Burnt at the stake.
  • H8 moaned about his wife discussing religion, said he was being lectured (by a woman!! even worse!!) Cons accuse KP of heresy, H8 agrees to investigate, death warrant drawn up. 
  • KP finds out, begs H8 for mercy, said she only spoke of religion to take his mind off his leg. H8 forgave her, she convinces him she isn't a herectic, promises to be guided by him in relig. 
  • But H8 allows Wriothesley to come to arrest her and then humiliates him as a 'fool'

Note: Parliament 1545 (Before KP FS)

  • H8 last public appearance, gave a speech about faction, wants an end to it and a middle way in relig. Starkey says this speech is a warning, saying if they don't behave there will be executions therefore he's a puppet master, in control even on his death bed. Other historians - H8 clearly is not in control, R then C then R = out of control = no puppet master. 
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Factional Struggles cont

FS 6) Gardiner R vs C = R 

  • Cranmer goes for G again, previous struggle with nephew accusations weakned his position
  • 1546 - Refs inform H8 G has refused to exchange some of his Ch lands that border H8 estates, (Refs had suggested Henry might want it, Henry then said he did, G refuses saying this is Ch land, H8 takes G off PC therefore he is also excluded from Regency Council of ED.

1546 - Both factions know H8 is getting old, Ed will need a Council, he can't rule on his own, Refs don't want Cons on Council therefore need to be in control at H8 death. 

FS 7) Norfolk and Surrey (father and son) R vs C = R      1546/47

  • 1546 - Surrey accused of treason, many issues; mum = Yorkist & daughter of D of Buck, claims he'd used coat of arms of Edward the Confessor (thought he was his ancestor) had lost St Etienne & 1200 men in Fr campaign in 1546. 1544 = Boulougne invasion, lost Fr land he was in charge of. H8 doesn't like/trust him. 
  • Hertford (Ed Seymour) wants Surrey removed, he's powerful, could be a rival for Regency under Ed, has royal blood therefore claim > claims Surrey plotting against H8 - he wears a Yorkist coat of arms!! 
  • Dec 1546 - Surrey sent to Tower for treason, & Norfolk who confessed to knowing of son's treason, reason he backed it. Jan 1547 - Surrey executed, Norfolk due to be but H8 dies day before planned execution. Norfolk stays in Tower for whole of Ed's reign. 
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End of H8 - Henry's Will

Note on Surrey: He is a grown man with royal blood, wears a coat of arms, whereas Ed = little child, Surrey is a RIVAL TO THE THRONE OF ENG !! More right to be regent than Seymour therefore he wants him gone. SO REFORMERS WIN OVERALL!!   Henry's Will:

  • Country had to be ruled by a Regency Council of 16 men, Ed = 9yr old so sees a Regent as dangerous therefore wants a Council, wants an equal no of R and C, all decisions were to be joint and no leader. Ends up being mainly Refs.
  • H8 will drafted in Dec, left unsigned until Jan as a threat - you could still lose your place in the will PUPPET MASTER! Will says Ed - Mary - Eliz, assuming they had no kids. 
  • Will drawn up by Sir William Paget, (H8 Private Secretary) 
  • Paget chops and changes relig, unscrupulous, does anything, will serve H, Ed, Mary + Eliz, ends up being Seymour's ally. Purposely left space on the will to add things H8 wasn't aware of e.g. Thomas Seymour (Ed's bro) added to RC, H8 left him out as he didn't trust him. Clause - any title H8 meant to give out but hadn't, could still be given out, Seymour becomes D of Somerset
  • Able to do this as Denny controlled the Dry Stamp (King's signature,) he's Hertford's ally, Seymour, Denny & Paget control access to Privy Chamber so keep H8 death secret for 3 days to manipulate will. 
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Henry's Death

  • 28th Jan, 12pm - Cranmer summoned to King's beside, H8 is past speech. Protestant departure for H8. Dies at 2am, exact cause uncertain.
  • Following 2 days H8 death kept a secret, so meals were still brought to his lodgings. 
  • 31st Jan - morning, Wriothesley announced to parl H8 was dead. 

AGR Smith - 'partial control'

Starkey - 'puppet master'

Randall 'A pathetic old man, shamelessly exploited by those who were entrusted to help him.'

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