F321.1: Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Cards which contain all the definitions, and some explanations, for Unit 1.1, Basic Concepts of Chemistry.

Atomic Number

The number of protons in an atom.

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Mass Number

The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom.

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Element

A substance made up of one type of atom.

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Isotope

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

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Relative Isotopic Mass

The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with carbon-12, which has a mass of 12.

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Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)

The average mass of an atom of an element compared with carbon-12, which has a mass of 12.

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1st Ionisation Energy

The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms.

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Successive Ionisation Energy

The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of positive ions in the gaseous state.

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The Pattern of Ionisation Energy

  • As electrons are removed, the number of protons remains the same.
  • The remaining electrons are therefore more strongly attracted to the nucleus.
  • More energy is needed as successive electrons are removed.
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A Mole

The number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12 (6.02 x 10^23)

[^ means 'to the power of']

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Molar Mass

The mass of one mole of a substance.

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Group

Columns of the periodic table, which contain atoms with similar chemical and physical properties.

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Period

Rows of the periodic table, which show repeating trends in chemical and physical properties.

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Periodicity

The repeating pattern of reactivity across different periods.

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1st Ionisation Energy in Groups

  • As you move down a group, the outer electrons are in energy levels further away from the nucleus.
  • There is also a greater sheilding effect, so the forces between the nucleus and the electrons are weaker.
  • Therefore, the ionisation energy required to remove the electrons will decrease.
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1st Ionisation Energy in Periods

  • As you move across a period, electrons are added to the same shell.
  • The number of protons in the atom increases.
  • Therefore, the electrons are more strongly attracted to the nucleus.
  • As such, the ionisation energy needed to remove the electrons increases.
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Ionic Bond

An attraction between oppositely charged ions.

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Covalent Bond

The sharing of a pair of electrons between atoms.

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Comments

TayaMairead

Really informative :D

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