Key Definition; Biodiversity
Biodiversity - The number and variety of living organisms to be found in a particular area, e.g around the world, in a habitat or an ecosystem.
Key Definition; Species
Species - A group of individual organisms who are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. They are also similar in appearance (morphology), physiology, biochemistry and behaviour.
Key Definition; Habitat
Habitat- A place where an organism lives. It provides it with necessary conditions to survive, e.g nutrition and shelter.
Studying a small portion of a habitat and assuming it contains a representative set of species that can be applied to the whole habitat.
Sampling Plants; Transects - Line
- A line is stretched out across the habitat.
- Types of plant species and their numbers that touch the line are counted.
- May be recorded at set intervals.
- Preferably used where there aren't too many organisms.
Sampling Plants; Transects - Belt
- Two lines parallel to each other stretched out across habitat.
- Species of plant are counted inbetween them.
- Quadrats may be placed inbetween them.
Sampling Plants; Transects - Interrupted
- A quadrat is placed next to the line at set intervals.
- Gives more data than a line transect.
Sampling Plants; Quadrats - Random
- Use a random number generator to obtain coordinates and plot these on a map of the habitat.
- Distribute the quadrats within these points.
Sampling Plants; Quadrats - Systematic
- Lay out a grid over a map of the habitat.
- Pick out point on the map at set intervals.
- Distribute quadrats along these points.
Sampling Animals; Netting - Sweep
- Sweep through the vegetation in wide arcs with a net.
- Cought animals are then emptied out.
Sampling Animals; Netting - Mist
- A net is put in the pathway of birds or bats, which they find hard to see.
- It is frequently checked for any catches, so that the birds go through minimum discomfort.
Sampling Animals; Netting - Drift
- A net is placed in water against the waterflow.
- Small animals are caught and emptied out.
Sampling Animals; Pitfall Trap
- A small container is placed into the ground at the level of soil.
- Small animals travelling through the ground/grass/leaves fall into the container.
- It must contain a little bit of water or some crumpled paper to prevent them from escaping/crawling out.
- It must be sheltered when raining - the container can fill up with water and drown the animals.
Sampling Animals; Longsworth Trap
- A tunnel that traps an animal once it has entered it, with minimum discomfort.
- It provides the animal with shelter and bedding.
Sampling Animals; Tullgren Funnel
- An apparatus that collects small animals.
- Leaf litter is placed at the top of it.
- Heat generated beneath it drives the leaf litter to become hot.
- Small animals thus fall down through the apparatus into a collecting jar at the bottom of it.
Sampling Animals; Pooter
- A thin, long device, sea-through.
- Traps small animal animals, preventing them from flying out or escaping.
Sampling Animals; Beating Tray
- A white cloth stretched out over a point frame.
- Foliage e.g a tree, is shaken.
- Animals disloge and fall onto the cloth.
- They can then be collected.
Sampling Plants; Quadrats - Point
- A frame with metal rods may be placed into a quadrat.
- Plant species touching the metal rods can be counted.