ExtremeEnvironment Tourism Case Study Antarctica -Geog gcse


HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Né M
  • Created on: 15-06-12 12:01

Antarctica Introduction

  • Small-scale tourism started in Antarctica in the 50s when commericial shipping began to take a few passengers
  • The first specially designed cruise first went to Antarctica in 1969
  • From 9000 tourists a year in 1992-3 it has grown to around 46000 in 2007-8
  • Many tourists fly to New Zealand or Argentina and take a cruise ship for 1-2 weeks
  • There are over 100 tourist companies involved
  • In order of percentage of nationality of tourists: American, British, German, Australian
1 of 3

Environmental Impact

  • The environmental impact of a tourist is much greater than that of a researcher
  • Landing sites are chosen for particular reasons, so often become honeypots
  • Few visitors go on the ice - and 99% of the island is ice, meaning there is little left for tourist activity
  • There is a fragile land ecosystem as it's very cold with little sunlight
    -this means it takes a long time to recover from damage
  • Tourists can trample plants, disturb wildlife, drop litter
  • There are fears that tourists could introduce a new species to the area which could spread disease or wipe out current species.
  • There is a worry of fuel spillages - this would damage sea life (e.g. kill molluscs, fish and birds that feed on them)
2 of 3

Protection of Antarctica

There are measures in place to protect Antarctica
The Antarctica Treaty:

  • This was made in 1961 and signed by 47 countries
  • This was designed to protect and conserve the area and its plant and animal life
  • There are limits on tourism - each ship must have fewer than 500 passengers and only 100 passengers are allowed on land at a time

There is a voluntary code of conduct which most listen to:

  • Specially Protects Areas are out of limits to tourists
  • The wildlife must not be disturbed - e.g. boats should keep distance from whales
  • No litter can be left by tourists
  • No smoking on shore
  • Tourists must stay in their groups and be supervised
  • Tourists must not walk on the fragile plant life
  • Sewage must be treated biologically and other waste left on the ship
3 of 3


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Tourism resources »