A01 - Restrained eating -
89% of the female population in the UK consciously restrain the food intake at some point in theiir lives.
Herman and Mack (1975) attempted to explain both the causes and consequemces associated wiith the cogntive restriction of food intake. Attempting not to eat actually increases the probability of over eating.
Wardle and Beales (1988) carried out an experiment to test this prediction, with their study showing that the overeating shown by many dieters is actually due to them attempting to diet.
The Boundary Model
A01 - Herman and Polivy (1984)
Dieters tend to have a larger range between hunger and satiety levels as it takes them longer to feel hungry and more food to satisfy them.
Restrained eaters have a self-imposed desired intake. Once they have gone over this boundary they continue to eat until they reach satiety (beyond the maximum level imposed as part of their diet).according to this model, hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum and satiety (satisfaction of hunger) works to keep intake below maximum level.
A02 - Implications for obesity treatment-
restraint leads to excess, yet the treatment of obesity recommends restraint as a solution to excessive weight gain. Failed attempts to diet can leave obese individuals depressed, feeling a failiure and unable to control their weight. Ogden (1994) stated that although obesity may not be caused by overeating, overeating may be a consequence of obesity if restraint is recommended as a treatment.
Ogden (2007) although dieters, bulimics and some anorexics report episodes of over eating, the behaviour of restricting anorexics cant be explained usng this theory. if trying not to eat results in overeating, then how do anorexics manage to starve themselves?
The role of Denial
A01 - Wegner et al (1987) asked some participants not to think about a white bear, but to ring a bell when they did, and others to think about the bear. Results showed that those told not to think about the bear rang their bells far more often than participants instructed to think about the bear.
Wegner et al (1994) ironic processes of mental control, represents a paradoxical effect of thought control (denial often backfiers).
The theory of ironic processes of mental control.
Dieters try to suppress thoughts about foods deemed to be forbidden as part of their diet. Attempts to suppress thoughts of foods such as pizza and chocolate only serve to increase the dieters preoccupation with the very foods they are trying to deny themselves. As soon as a food is denied, it automatically becomes more attractive.
The theory of ironic processes of mental control
A02 - Soetens et al (2006) research support - participants were divided in to restrained and unrestrained eaters, restrained group then subdivided into those who were wither high or low on disinhibition. The disinhibited restrained group group (those who tried to eat less, yet would often overeat) used more thought suppression than the other groups, also showed a rebound effect (thought more about food).
Wegner (1994) ironic effects not large enough. Although effects may underlie more seriosus pathological formss of eating behaviour, their influence could be considered overwhelming in terms of everyday human cost.
Detail - the key to a succesful diet.
A01 - Redden (2008) successful dieting lies in the attention we pay to what is being eaten. Instead of thinking 'not another' we should focus on the details of the meal, this enables the dieter to not become bored too easily.
Jelly bean experiment - gave 135 people 22 jelly beans each, one at a time. as each bean was dispensed, information was flashed onto a computer screen. One group saw general general information (bean number 7). One group saw specific flavour details (cherry flavour number 7). Participants got bored with eating beans faster if they saw the genes information, and enjoyed the task more if they saw the specific flavour details.
A02 - Ineffectiveness and potentially damaging effects of many diet progrramme - development of programmes aimed at replacing dieting with conventional healthy eating.
Higgins and Gray (1999) meta-analysis found that participation in these programmes was associated with improvements in both eating behaviour and psychological wellbeing and with weight stability rather than weight change.