Explanations in Social Inequality (40 Markers)

  • Created by: iiStevey
  • Created on: 10-04-19 18:18

Class Inequality: Functionalism

PARSONS:

  • There is a value consensus that some indivuduals are better than others so these deserve a higher reward - social stratification.
  • Example: CEO's running businesses deserve highest reward as they create jobs/wealth.

PARSONS EVALUATION:

  • Isn't possible to determine functional importance of a role - cleaner disinfecting example.

DAVIS & MOORE:

  • Believes in role allocation whereby most important roles are filled by most able people - reccieve higher rewards such as income/status - Judged by qualifications.
  • Motivated by the rewards to work harder - rewards of others motivate us

DAVIS & MOORE EVALUTION:

  • Assume only a small pool of talent are able to perform the top jobs.
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Class Inequality: New Right

MURRAY:

  • Benefits & Welfare system creates dependacy culture for the unemployed and lone parents - creates an underclass who are burden to society and have no motivation to better themselves.
  • Believes benefits should be eradicated to encorage underclass.

MURRAY EVALUTION:

  • Wrong to assume that all members of the underclass share this attitude.

SAUNDERS:

  • Force could be used to control inequality but shouldn't be used as ineqality motivates us to betetr selfs - have some equal opportunities i.e. healthcare / education.
  • Rejects idea of restricting higher taxes as stops companies from growing.

SAUNDER EVALUTION:

  • Critics reject fully freemarket in capiltalism - past experiences such as slavery.
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Class Inequality: Marxism

MARX:

  • Bourgeouise own the means of production - exploit the proletariats to gain surplus value from them as they provide the labour.
  • Class inequality is a fundamental element of capiltalism and due to proletariatisation the inequality will only get worse.
  • Marx say there is a eed for a revolution to communism to regain equality.

MARX EVALUATION:

  • Statistics show that proletariatisation doesn't exist as in fact there is a growing middle class.
  • As proven, communism has always failed showing this idea is unstable.
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Class Inequality: Feminism

RADICAL FEMINIST:

  • Top jobs dominated by men who exploit women making them have less chance of reaching the top jobs - boost mens chances of upward mobility.

MARXIST FEMINIST:

  • Zaretsky - Safe Haven linked with Fran Ansleys "Takers of ****" statement - women are oppresed and stuck at home creating a class inequality for them since they're traditionally domesticated and are expectant to be the home maker.

OVERALL EVALUTION:

  • Liberal Feminism - There is a march of progress meaning inequality will improve with time.
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Class Inequality:Weber

WEBER:

  • Weber believes that identity is complex and multi-dimensional meaning class isn't the only considering fact - need to look at other elements such as status and party.

EVALUTION:

  • For many class is still the most important factor as it impacts areas such as income, wealth and opportunities plus with inequality not improving - class is becoming more significant with dividing members of society.
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Gender Inequality: Functionalism

MURDOCK:

  • Perform different roles because of Biological differences - Women can't perform strenous tasks so take the caring homemaker role whereas men can perform such tasks so are breadwinners - Divison of labour is evident in many societies.

MURDOCK EVALUATION:

  • These roles have been socially constructed around the nuclear family thus as society develops these views are becoming outdated - women now breadwinner and vice versa.

PARSONS:

  • Believes in separate roles - Instrumental and Expressive roles which contribute to smooth running of society - explains why genders have different experiences within labour market.

PARSONS EVALUATION:

  • In modern society roles can be shared and men/women take different roles plus parsons view is also based around the nuclear family which has declined today.
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Gender Inequality: New Right

SCHLAFY:

  • New Right sociologists also believe in a biological analogy with a need for a nuclear family but blame government for not encouraging families to adopt nuclear families e.g. create tax breaks - lack of government involvement lead to decline in nuclear families.

EVALUATION:

  • Nuclear family is becoming outdated with traditional roles no longer being important - women are doing more.
  • Also ignores the darksides of family such as abuse.
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Gender Inequality: Marxism

ZARETSKY:

  • Women are located at home to create a safe haven from work - Pressures of work can impact men so they can take out their stress at home - stops them from revolting against work - allows bourg to continue to exploit the prolet.

ZARETKSY EVALUATION:

  • Assumes family types are primarily nuclear which is an outdated idea in society today. Different family types i.e. lone parent plus roles have changed.

ENGELS:

  • Nuclear family was created because of private property ownership - men want to ensure inhertiance to offspring is theirs - gained power over women by providing home.

ENGELS EVALUATION:

  • Traditional viewpoint which is now outdated - nuclear family is minimal plus women now own private property - gender roles changed.
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Gender Inequality: Feminism

RADICAL:

  • Men have exploited women for decades and are the sole issue for women's inequality - believe there is a need for political lesbianism whereby women separate themselves from men and focus on their own gender (Associated with 2nd wave feminism).

FRAN ANSLEY:

  • Women are 'Takers of ****' - explains how women have had to deal with male problems - been exploited and get abused for the benefit of the male.

EVALUATION:

  • Liberal Feminsm - There is a march of progress in society as inequality is improving - no need for radical or sudden action as small changes over time help contribute to equality.
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Gender Inequality: Weber

WEBER:

  • Identity is multidimensional so we can't just look at gender - need to look at class, party and status to gain full understanding of an indivduals position.

EVALUATION:

  • Gender is still a strong influence therefore identity isn't multidimensional as factors such as the pay gap exist making gender significant.
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Ethnic Inequality: Functionalism

PARSONS:

  • The American ***** is a 2nd Class Citizen who have't fully integrated into society since the norms/values differ but overtime will improve through factors such as Obama.

PARSONS EVALUATION:

  • Racism in society exists with police brutality figures still evident and statistics such as more black people in prison than college being true in America.

PATTERSON:

  • Host Immigrant Model - 3 Stages (Accomdate | Intergrate | Assimulate) - Currently a culture clash between white and Indians as Norms/Values differ.

PATTERSON EVALUATION:

  • Model isn't effective to all ethnicities as they don't always follow the order Patterson sets down e.g. Muslims.
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Ethnic Inequality: New Right

MURRAY:

  • The USA had a growing underclass of black people who adopted a dependancy culture - influenced UK to develop a underclass because of benefits - Murray says remove benefits so they are forced to work to survive.

MURRAY EVALUATION:

  • Murray is accused of ignoring economic issues and racism which force indivuduals into the 'Underclass' status - victim blaming theory which is unfair.

SEWELL:

  • EM have lack of male role model - more likely to be in lone parent family - aren't socialised correctly and learn values such as crime/macho/agression from the media.

SEWELL EVALUATION:

  • The media presents positive role models such as Will Smith/Obama which teach EM boys correct norms & values. Also other role models in the family can teach them
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Ethnic Inequality: Marxism

COX:

  • Racism was created to justify slavery allowing exploitation of labour power to occur benefitting bourg for surplus value - colonialism allowed expolitation of ethnic minorities.

COX EVALUATION:

  • Cox's views can be dubbed as too simplistic as racism can be tracked before the days of slavery/capiltalism - can't pin inequality on the economic role of ethnic minorities.

MILES:

  • Racism has been rebranded as nationalism now whereby immigrants are blamed for crisis' such as housing/education/NHS - groups such as EDL and events like Brexit put stronger focus on ethnic minorities and how they're a burden.

MILES EVALUATION:

  • Oppoistional parties/organisations exist to argue these viewpoints - also not all blame put on ethnic miniorities is racist e.g. black crime in London is statistically higher.
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Ethnic Inequality: Feminism

BREWER:

  • Black women have dual issues as disadvantaged because of class and ethnicity - white women don't face - believe that feminism needs to look at all aspects of identity.

BREWER EVALUATION:

  • Other feminists critise Brewer as similarities just as important as differences between women - isn't achieving equality between different women. 

MIRZA:

  • Black women have a unique experience so need for distinctive black feminism to challenge the inequalities they face - Black women can help further equality between women.

MIRZA EVALUATION:

  • This view isn't true for all women and it's racist to assume all black women have a unqie quality compared to other ethnicities that make them special in contributing to ethnic inequality.
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Ethnic Inequality: Weber

WEBER:

  • Identity is multidimensional so need to look at other factors such as class, party and status. Ethnicity alone isn't enough to determine an indivduals inequality - cannot explain their position in society.

WEBER EVALUATION:

  • Ethnic Minorities statistically do worse in society e.g. housing, poverty, incomes etc.
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Age Inequality: Functionalism

PARSONS:

  • Bridge between child & adulthood - as youths norms/values differ they need to be treated differently so this doesn't transfer to adulthood (youth usually deviant so need authority).

PARSONS EVALUATION:

  • Bridge doesn't always happen as not all children learn the socially acceptable norms and values - young offenders etc - deviant behaviour.

DISENGAGEMENT THEORY:

  • Treatment of elderly has a benefit for the wider society - encouraged to retire which allows younger members to take their place in the labour market.

DISENGAGEMENT EVALUATION:

  • Retirement age is increasing due to factors such as lack of fianance and pensions - makes disengagement theory ineffective in explain elderly inequality as they aren't leaving society.
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Age Inequality: Marxism

MARX:

  • The young & elderly are seen as a reserve army of labour as they are unemployed/ underemployed - keeps wages down since they can be hired on zero hour contracts etc.

MARX EVALUATION:

  • The retirement age is increasing meaning unemployment rates will drop for the older demographics making cost decreasing ineffective for the bourg.

GRAMSCI:

  • Legitmation of Authority - Conforming to authority - A false class conscious is created by implementing small measures such as child benefit and pensions - getting exploited - creates a dependancy and need for authority.

GRAMSCI EVALUATION:

  • In modern society with global influence the young are more likely to revolt.
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Age Inequality: Feminism

OLD AGE:

  • As women age they face more inequality then men - women are judged on appearance and are constantly encouraged to improve it i.e. anti-ageing creams. Women devalue after child-bearing in a patriarchal society.

OLD AGE EVALUATION:

  • Men are starting to get judged considerably more aswell meaning the inequality isn't just true for one gender - compared to older men in media i.e. 'Silver Fox'.

YOUNG WOMEN:

  • Like women, younger members need protection - women responsible for this care - adults responsible for kids as they aren't capable of knowing what's good for them i.e. lack of same rights / society = adult centered.

YOUNG WOMEN EVALUATION:

  • Liberal feminists would argue this is getting better - MOP - better rights/awareness.
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Age Inequality: Weber

WEBER:

  • Weber would argue identity is multidimensional so we need to look at age aswell as other factors of identity such as class, party, status - gives a better understanding of an individuals position within society.

WEBER EVALUATION:

  • Age is a element of identity that has a master status - there is no control over biological age meaning it has direct impact on identity and can't be a contribution to an indivduals position unlike factors such as class.
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Age Inequality: Postmodernism

MASK OF OLD AGE:

  • Believe that although appearance has changed elderly have the same thoughts as their younger selfs but they're marginalised due to appearance.

MASK OF OLD AGE EVALUATION:

  • Not applicable to all old people as many still have the same experience compared to when they were younger - still get to experience their life chances.

DIGITAL GENERATION GAP:

  • With technology constantly developing the old are getting more and more excluded from society as they struggle to understand and work with new tech i.e. computers at work.

DIGITAL GENERATION GAP EVALUATION:

  • This is getting better as more companies i.e. Which? help old people understand technology so they don't become disconnected from society. 
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